Neuropediatrics 2019; 50(05): 273-279
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1693152
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Diagnostic Considerations in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and the Interface with MOG Antibody

Jonathan D. Santoro
1  Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
2  Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
3  Department of Neurology, Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States
4  Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States
,
Tanuja Chitnis
1  Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
2  Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

18 March 2019

03 June 2019

Publication Date:
24 July 2019 (online)

Abstract

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a common yet clinically heterogenous syndrome characterized by encephalopathy, focal neurologic findings, and abnormal neuroimaging. Differentiating ADEM from other demyelinating disorders of childhood can be difficult and appropriate interpretation of the historical, clinical, and neurodiagnostic components of a patient's presentation is critical. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated diseases are a recently recognized set of disorders, which include ADEM presentations, among other phenotypes. This review article discusses the clinical diagnosis, differential diagnosis, interpretation of data, and treatment/prognosis of this unique syndrome with distinctive review of the spectrum of MOG antibodies.