Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019; 23(06): 643-656
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1697939
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Weight-bearing CT Technology in Musculoskeletal Pathologies of the Lower Limbs: Techniques, Initial Applications, and Preliminary Combinations with Gait-Analysis Measurements at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli

Alberto Leardini
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Stefano Durante
2   Nursing, Technical and Rehabilitation Assistance Service, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Claudio Belvedere
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Paolo Caravaggi
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Claudio Carrara
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Lisa Berti
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Giada Lullini
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Claudia Giacomozzi
3   Department of Cardiovascular and Endocrine-Metabolic Diseases and Aging, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy
Gilda Durastanti
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Maurizio Ortolani
1   Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
Giuseppe Guglielmi
4   Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Alberto Bazzocchi
5   Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Funding Source Ministero della Salute:, Programma 5*1000.
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 November 2019 (online)


Musculoskeletal radiology has been mostly limited by the option between imaging under load but in two dimensions (i.e., radiographs) and three-dimensional (3D) scans but in unloaded conditions (i.e., computed tomography [CT] and magnetic resonance imaging in a supine position). Cone-beam technology is now also a way to image the extremities with 3D and weight-bearing CT. This article discusses the initial experience over a few studies in progress at an orthopaedic center. The custom design of total ankle replacements, the patellofemoral alignment after medial ligament reconstruction, the overall architecture of the foot bones in the diabetic foot, and the radiographic assessment of the rearfoot after subtalar fusion for correction of severe flat foot have all taken advantage of the 3D and weight-bearing feature of relevant CT scans. To further support these novel assessments, techniques have been developed to obtain 3D models of the bones from the scans and to merge these with state-of-the-art gait analyses.

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