Postorthodontic Relapse Prevention by Administration of Grape Seed (Vitis vinifera) Extract Containing Cyanidine in RatsFunding This work was supported by Universitas Gadjah Mada through Hibah Rekognisi Tugas Akhir in the fiscal year 2019 under the contract No. 3090/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2019.
31. Dezember 2019 (online)
Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of grape seed extract containing cyanidin on osteoclastogenesis (by means of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand [RANKL] and osteoprotegerin [OPG] levels) and the number of osteoclasts during orthodontic relapse in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods This study is an in vivo quasi experimental research. A total of 32 male Wistar rats were used in the study, which were randomly split equally into two groups, grape seed (GS) and control group (CG). All rats were given an orthodontic force of 35 cN using a stainless steel 3-spin coil spring that was activated for 7 days and then conditioned to be passive. During this phase, the GS group was administered grape seed extract containing cyanidin once per day. Orthodontic appliances were removed from both groups afterward, and then the alveolar bone tissue was isolated consecutively according to observation days (days 1, 3, 7, and 14), while OPG and RANKL levels were analyzed in their gingival crevicular fluid using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissues were then stained with hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) and observed under a light microscope to count the number of osteoclast cells. Data were analyzed statistically using an independent t-test (p < 0.05).
Results The number of osteoclasts in the GS group was significantly lower than that in the CG group on all experiment days (p = 0.021; p = 0.001; p = 0.024; p = 0.001; p < 0.05). ELISA results showed that the RANKL level of the GS group was significantly lower on days 3 and 7 (p = 0.025; p = 0.039; p < 0.05), while the OPG level was significantly higher on days 1 and 3 in the GS group than in the CG group (p = 0.039; p = 0.021; p < 0.05).
Conclusion Grape seed extract can prevent postorthodontic relapse movement by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and reducing the number of osteoclasts in Wistar rats.
- 1 Narmada IB, Husodo KRD, Ardani IGAW, Rahmawati D, Nugraha AP, Iskandar RPD. Effect of vitamin D during orthodontic tooth movement on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand expression and osteoclast number in pregnant wistar rat (Rattus novergicus . JKIMSU 2019; 8 (01) 37-42
- 2 Alhasyimi AA, Pudyani PP, Asmara W, Ana ID. Enhancement of post-orthodontic tooth stability by carbonated hydroxyapatite-incorporated advanced platelet-rich fibrin in rabbits. Orthod Craniofac Res 2018; 21 (02) 112-118
- 3 Narmada IB, Rubianto M, Putra ST. The role of low-intensity biostimulation laser therapy in transforming growth factor. 1, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression during orthodontic tooth movement in cavia porcellus. Eur J Dent 2019; 13 (01) 102-107
- 4 Al-Rawi NH, Al-Siraj AK, Majeed AH. Comparison of osteoclastogenesis and local invasiveness of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Eur J Dent 2018; 12 (01) 36-42
- 5 Alhasyimi AA, Pudyani PS, Asmara W, Ana ID. Locally inhibition of orthodontic relapse by injection of carbonated hydroxyapatite advanced platelet-rich fibrin in a rabbit model. Key Eng Mater 2017; 758: 255-263
- 6 Al Yami EA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, van ’t Hof MA. Stability of orthodontic treatment outcome: follow-up until 10 years postretention. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999; 115 (03) 300-304
- 7 Kennel KA, Drake MT. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates: implications for osteoporosis management. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84 (07) 632-637, quiz 638
- 8 Suparwitri S, Rosyida NF, Alhasyimi AA. Wheat seeds can delay orthodontic tooth movement by blocking osteoclastogenesis in rats. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2019; 11: 243-249
- 9 Xia E, He X, Li H, Wu S, Li S, Deng G. Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes. Polyphenols Hum Heal Dis. 2013; 1: 47-58
- 10 Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 2003; 64 (05) 923-933
- 11 Fang J. Bioavailability of anthocyanins. Drug Metab Rev 2014; 46 (04) 508-520
- 12 Park KH., Gu DR, So HS, Kim KJ, Lee SH. Dual role of cyanidin-3-glucoside on the differentiation of bone cells. J Dent Res 2015; 94 (12) 1676-1683
- 13 Li X, Udagawa N, Itoh K, Suda K, Murase Y, Nishihara T. et al p38 MAPK-mediated signals are required for inducing osteoclast differentiation but not for osteoclast function. Endocrinology 2002; 143 (08) 3105-3113
- 14 Vislocky LM, Fernandez ML. Biomedical effects of grape products. Nutr Rev 2010; 68 (11) 656-670
- 15 Ma Z, Zhang H. Phytochemical constituents, health benefits, and industrial applications of grape seeds: a mini-review. Antioxidants 2017; 6 (03) 71-77
- 16 Yahara N, Tofani I, Maki K, Kojima K, Kojima Y, Kimura M. Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2005; 5 (02) 162-169
- 17 Park JS, Park MK, Oh HJ. , LimMA, LeeJH, et al. Grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract as suppressors of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune arthritis. PLoS One 2012; 7 (12) e51377
- 18 Dou C, Li J, Kang F, Yang X, Jiang H. et al. Dual effect of cyanidin on rankl-induced differentiation and fusion of osteoclasts. J Cell Physiol 2016; 231 (03) 558-567
- 19 Perron NR, Brumaghim JL. A review of the antioxidant mechanisms of polyphenol compounds related to iron binding. Cell Biochem Biophys 2009; 53 (02) 75-100
- 20 Sheweita SA, Khoshhal KI. Calcium metabolism and oxidative stress in bone fractures: role of antioxidants. Curr Drug Metab 2007; 8 (05) 519-525
- 21 Kenkre J, Bassett JH. The bone remodelling cycle. Ann Clin Biochem 2018; 55 (03) 308-327
- 22 Alhasyimi AA, Rosyida NF. Cocoa administration may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement by inducing osteoclastogenesis in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019; 22 (02) 206-210