Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein and Cerebral Oxygenation in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
22 June 2019
01 October 2019
31 December 2019 (online)
Background Neonates undergoing surgery for complex congenital heart disease are at risk of developmental impairment. Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury might be a contributing factor. We aimed to investigate the perioperative release of the astrocyte cytoskeleton component glial fibrillary acid protein and its relation to cerebral oxygenation.
Methods Serum glial fibrillary acid protein levels were measured before and 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Reference values were based on preoperative samples; concentrations above the 95th percentile were defined as elevated. Cerebral oxygenation was derived by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Results Thirty-six neonates undergoing 38 surgeries utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled (complete data available for 35 procedures). Glial fibrillary acid protein was elevated after 18 surgeries (arterial switch: 7/12; Norwood: 5/15; others: 6/8; p = 0.144). Age at surgery was higher in cases with elevated serum levels (6 [4–7] vs. 4 [2–5] days, p = 0.009) and intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation was lower (70 ± 10% vs. 77 ± 7%, p = 0.029). In cases with elevated postoperative glial fibrillary acid protein, preoperative cerebral oxygen saturation was lower for neonates undergoing the arterial switch operation (55 ± 9% vs. 64 ± 4%, p = 0.048) and age at surgery was higher for neonates with a Norwood procedure (7 [6–8] vs. 5 [4–6] days, p = 0.028).
Conclusions Glial fibrillary acid protein was elevated after ∼50% of neonatal cardiac surgeries and was related to cerebral oxygenation and older age at surgery. The potential value as a biomarker for cerebral injury after neonatal cardiac surgery warrants further investigation; in particular, the association with neurodevelopmental outcome needs to be determined.
Keywordscardiopulmonary bypass - congenital heart disease - neonates - neurology/neurologic (deficits - disease - injury)
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
All listed authors fulfilled authorship criteria including substantial contributions to research design or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; drafting the article or revising it critically; and approval of the submitted and final versions.
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