Major Bleeding after Surgical Revascularization with Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
Objective Patients with acute coronary syndrome are treated with dual antiplatelet therapy containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and P2Y12 antagonists. In case of urgent coronary artery bypass grafting this might be associated with increasing risks of bleeding complications.
Methods Data from 1200 consecutive urgent operations between 2010 and 2018 were obtained from our institutional patient database. For this study off-pump surgery was excluded. The primary composite end point major bleeding consisted of at least one end point: transfusion ≥ 5 packed red blood cells within 24 hours, rethoracotomy due to bleeding, chest tube output >2000 mL within 24 hours. Demographic data, peri-, and postoperative variables and outcomes were compared between patients treated with mono antiplatelet therapy, ASA + clopidogrel (ASA-C) +ticagrelor (ASA-T) or +prasugrel (ASA-P) < 72 hours before surgery. Furthermore, we compared patients with dual antiplatelet therapy with ASA monotherapy.
Results From 1,086 patients, 475 (44%) received dual antiplatelet therapy. Three-hundred seventy-two received ASA-C (77.7%), 72 ASA-T (15%), and 31 ASA-P (6.5%). Major bleeding (44 vs. 23%, p < 0.0001) was more frequently in patients receiving dual therapy with higher rates of massive drainage loss within 24 hours (23 vs. 11%, p < 0.0001) of mass transfusion (34 vs. 16%, p < 0.0001) and rethoracotomy (10 vs. 5%, p = 0.002) when compared with ASA. In this analysis, ASA-T and ASA-P were not associated with higher bleeding complications compared with ASA-C.
Conclusion Dual antiplatelet therapy is associated with higher rates of major bleeding. Further studies should examine the difference in the prevalence of major bleeding complications in the different dual antiplatelet therapy regimes in patients requiring urgent surgery.
Keywordscoronary artery bypass grafts surgery - CABG - myocardial infarction (includes complications; e.g. - rupture) - blood - antiplatelet
* Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 18 January 2020
Accepted: 21 February 2020
27 June 2020 (online)
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