Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41(05): 758-784
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1712534
Review Article

Radiographic and Histopathologic Features in Sarcoidosis: A Pictorial Display

Faisal Shaikh
1  Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
,
Fereidoun G. Abtin
2  Department of Radiology, Thoracic and Interventional Section, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
,
Ryan Lau
3  Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
,
Rajan Saggar
1  Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
,
John A. Belperio
1  Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
,
Joseph P. Lynch III
1  Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disorder that can affect virtually any organ. However, pulmonary and thoracic lymph node involvement predominates; abnormalities on chest radiographs are present in 80 to 90% of patients with sarcoidosis. High-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans are superior to chest X-rays in assessing extent of disease, and some CT features may discriminate an active inflammatory component (which may be amenable to therapy) from fibrosis (for which therapy is not indicated). Typical findings on HRCT include micronodules, perilymphatic and bronchocentric distribution, perihilar opacities, and varying degrees of fibrosis. Less common findings on CT include mass-like or alveolar opacities, miliary opacities, mosaic attenuation, honeycomb cysts, and cavitation. With progressive disease, fibrosis, architectural distortion, upper lobe volume loss with hilar retraction, coarse linear bands, cysts, and bullae may be observed. We discuss the salient CT findings in patients with sarcoidosis (with a major focus on pulmonary features) and present classical radiographic and histopathological images of a few extrapulmonary sites.



Publication History

Publication Date:
10 August 2020 (online)

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