Semin Neurol 2020; 40(04): 394-410
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715134
Review Article

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Comparison with Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

Orit H. Lesman-Segev
1  Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
,
Lauren Edwards
1  Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
,
Gil D. Rabinovici
1  Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
2  Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
3  Weill Neuroscience Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

The clinical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is challenging due to heterogeneous clinical presentations and overlap with other neurodegenerative dementias. Depending on the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis of CTE includes Alzheimer's disease (AD), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, primary mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. The aim of this article is to compare the clinical aspects, genetics, fluid biomarkers, imaging, treatment, and pathology of CTE to those of AD and bvFTD. A detailed clinical evaluation, neurocognitive assessment, and structural brain imaging can inform the differential diagnosis, while molecular biomarkers can help exclude underlying AD pathology. Prospective studies that include clinicopathological correlations are needed to establish tools that can more accurately determine the cause of neuropsychiatric decline in patients at risk for CTE.



Publication History

Publication Date:
20 August 2020 (online)

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