Postoperative Neurological Complications after a Cranial Surgery: A Multicentre Prospective Observational Study
Background Cranial surgery is associated with multiple postoperative complications varying from simple nausea and vomiting to devastating complications such as stroke and death. This multicentre collaborative effort was envisioned to collect observational data regarding postoperative complications in cranial surgeries among the Indian population. The aim of this study was to describe the postoperative neurological complications occurring within the first 24 hours after surgery and to identify the predictive factors.
Methods Data was collected from three participating tertiary care academic institutions. The study was prospective, observational, multicentre design with data collected over a period of two months or 100 cases, whichever is earlier, from each participating institute. A predesigned Microsoft excel sheet was distributed among all three centers to maintain uniformity. All patients aged 18 years and above of both sexes undergoing elective or emergency craniotomies were included in the study. The postoperative neurological complications (within 24 hours) assessed were: (1) Neurological deficit (ND) defined as new focal neurological motor deficit relative to preoperative status. (2) Sensorium deterioration (SD) defined as reduction in Glasgow coma score (GCS) by 2 or more points compared with preoperative GCS. (4) Postoperative seizures (SZs) defined as any seizure activity. All possible variables associated with the above neurological complications were tested using Chi-square/Fisher exact test or Mann–Whitney U test. The predictors, which were statistically significant at p < 0.2, were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. Alpha error of 5% was taken as significant.
Results Data from three institutions was collected with a total of 279 cases. In total, there were 53 (19%) neurological complications. There were 28 patients with new postoperative NDs (10.04%), 24 patients had SD (8.6%), and 17 patients had seizures (6.1%). Neurological deficits were significantly less in institution 2. Diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with very low risk of ND, and vascular pathology was associated with higher chance of a ND. The duration of anesthesia was found to be significantly predictive of SD (OR/CI = 1.01 / 1–1.02). None of the factors were predictive of PS.
Conclusion The incidences of postoperative ND, SD and postoperative seizures were 10%, 8.6%, and 6.1%, respectively. Studies with a much larger sample size are required for a better and detailed analysis of these complications.
05 August 2020 (online)
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