Thromb Haemost
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715646
Stroke, Systemic or Venous Thromboembolism

Calf Vein Thrombosis Comparison of Outcomes for Axial and Muscular Venous Thrombosis

Wiktoria Kuczmik
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Waldemar E. Wysokinski
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Gina K. Hesley
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Danielle T. Vlazny
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Damon E. Houghton
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Keith E. Swanson
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
Ana I. Casanegra
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
,
David Hodge
3  Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, United States
,
Launia White
3  Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, United States
,
Robert D. McBane II
1  Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
2  Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Background The objective of this study was to characterize clinical features and outcomes among patients with calf deep vein thrombosis (DVT) limited to the muscular veins compared with axial veins.

Methods Consecutive patients with ultrasound confirmed acute DVT involving the calf veins (January 1, 2016–August 1, 2018) were identified from the Gonda Vascular Center ultrasound database. Patients were divided into axial or muscular groups based on thrombus location. Demographics, management, and outcomes were compared.

Results Over the study period, there were 647 patients with calf DVT equally distributed between axial (n = 321) and muscular (n = 326) locations. Within these groups, peroneal and soleal veins were most commonly involved. Nearly all cases were provoked (97%). Synchronous pulmonary embolism (PE) were more common for axial (30.8%) compared to muscular groups (20.2%; p = 0.001); nearly one-third had no pulmonary symptoms. Anticoagulation for a median of 3 months was initiated for 85.5% of both groups. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence was more common in the axial group (15.9% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.0015) including more frequent DVT propagation (9.4% vs. 3.1%; p = 0.0017) and PE (3.4% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.0168). Major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and mortality rates did not differ between groups. Withholding anticoagulation led to more frequent thrombus propagation in the axial group (3.4% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.029).

Conclusion Several important features distinguish muscular from axial DVT. Axial DVT are more likely to have an associated PE and are more likely to experience recurrent VTE, particularly if anticoagulation is withheld.



Publication History

Received: 09 April 2020

Accepted: 09 July 2020

Publication Date:
22 August 2020 (online)

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