Robotic Navigated Laser Craniotomy for Depth Electrode Implantation in Epilepsy Surgery: A Cadaver Lab Study
Objective Depth electrode implantation for invasive monitoring in epilepsy surgery has become a standard procedure. We describe a new frameless stereotactic intervention using robot-guided laser beam for making precise bone channels for depth electrode placement.
Methods A laboratory investigation on a head cadaver specimen was performed using a CT scan planning of depth electrodes in various positions. Precise bone channels were made by a navigated robot-driven laser beam (erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet [Er:YAG], 2.94-μm wavelength,) instead of twist drill holes. Entry point and target point precision was calculated using postimplantation CT scans and comparison to the preoperative trajectory plan.
Results Frontal, parietal, and occipital bone channels for bolt implantation were made. The occipital bone channel had an angulation of more than 60 degrees to the surface. Bolts and depth electrodes were implanted solely guided by the trajectory given by the precise bone channels. The mean depth electrode length was 45.5 mm. Entry point deviation was 0.73 mm (±0.66 mm SD) and target point deviation was 2.0 mm (±0.64 mm SD). Bone channel laser time was ∼30 seconds per channel. Altogether, the implantation time was ∼10 to 15 minutes per electrode.
Conclusion Navigated robot-assisted laser for making precise bone channels for depth electrode implantation in epilepsy surgery is a promising new, exact and straightforward implantation technique and may have many advantages over twist drill hole implantation.
Received: 23 February 2020
Accepted: 08 June 2020
05 December 2020 (online)
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