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Smell Regions in Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency: An MRI Evaluation
Objective We investigated the effects of vitamin D deficiency in the peripheral and central smell regions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods This retrospective study included 29 patients (12 males, 17 females) with 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)2D3] deficiency (group 1) and 34 subjects without 25(OH)2D3 deficiency (14 males, 20 females) (group 2). Using cranial MRIs, the peripheral (olfactory bulb [OB] volume and olfactory sulcus [OS] depth) and central (insular gyrus and corpus amygdala) smell regions were evaluated.
Results The OB volume and OS depth values of the 25(OH)2D3 deficiency group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). For the central smell regions, the insular gyrus and corpus amygdala areas of the 25(OH)2D3 deficiency group were nonsignificantly lower than those in the control group (p > 0.05). There were positive correlations between OB volumes, OS depths, and insular gyrus and corpus amygdala areas bilaterally in the 25(OH)2D3 deficiency group separately and in all subjects (groups 1 and 2) (p < 0.05). In the 25(OH)2D3 deficiency group, as the 25(OH)2D3 values became lower, the insular gyrus area values decreased bilaterally (p < 0.05). In females, the corpus amygdala area values were lower than in males (p < 0.05).
Conclusion Since vitamin D3 deficiency affected the peripheral and central smell regions negatively, we recommend evaluating patients' vitamin D levels as a health policy to prevent vitamin D3 deficiency-related cranial smell region problems. Moreover, sunlight exposure is very important to increase vitamin D levels, and the public should be informed about this topic.
Keywordsvitamin D3 deficiency - olfactory bulb volume - olfactory sulcus depth - insular gyrus - corpus amygdala - smell
Ethics Committee Approval
This study is retrospective. Ethics committee approval was obtained from Kırıkkale University Non-invasive Research Ethics Committee (Date: 15.05.2019 Number: 2019.05.10)
Z.S. has contributed substantially in planning, designing, data collection, literature survey, and interpretation of the results. N.B.M. has done planning, designing, literature survey, statistical analysis, interpretation of the results writing, and submission. M.H.S. has contributed in planning, designing, data collection, and literature survey.
Received: 06 February 2020
Accepted: 29 October 2020
19 January 2021 (online)
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