Semin Thromb Hemost 2021; 47(07): 787-799
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727111
Review Article

Microparticles: An Alternative Explanation to the Behavior of Vascular Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Daniel Álvarez
1  Grupo Reproducción, Departamento Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia
,
Carolina Rúa
2  Grupo de Investigación en Trombosis, Departamento Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia
,
Ángela P. Cadavid J
1  Grupo Reproducción, Departamento Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia
2  Grupo de Investigación en Trombosis, Departamento Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was supported by Minciencias, Colombia (Grant no. 111580762949).

Abstract

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, along with occurrence of vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. The variety of antiphospholipid antibodies and their related mechanisms, as well as the behavior of disease in wide groups of patients, have led some authors to propose a differentiation of this syndrome into two independent entities: vascular and obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Thus, previous studies have discussed whether specific autoantibodies may be responsible for this differentiation or, in contrast, how the same antibodies are able to generate two different clinical presentations. This discussion is yet to be settled. The capability of serum IgG from patients with vascular thrombosis to trigger the biogenesis of endothelial cell-derived microparticles in vitro is one of the previously discussed differences between the clinical entities of antiphospholipid syndrome. These vesicles constitute a prothrombotic mechanism as they can directly lead to clot activation in murine models and recalcified human plasma. Nevertheless, other indirect mechanisms by which microparticles can spread a procoagulant phenotype could be critical to understanding their role in antiphospholipid syndrome. For this reason, questions regarding the cargo of microparticles, and the signaling pathways involved in their biogenesis, are of interest in attempting to explain the behavior of this autoimmune disease.

Authors' Contributions

Á.P.C.J. and D.Á. proposed the main topic of this review; D.Á. prepared the draft copy of the manuscript; and C.R. and Á.P.C.J. critically assessed and evaluated the writing process.




Publication History

Publication Date:
30 April 2021 (online)

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