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In-Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Candida albicans Nosodes
Background This study presents the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay of a series of nosodes: namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Candida albicans. Each was tested against its corresponding infection as well as cross infections.
Methods In-vitro efficacy of polyvalent nosodes was tested using the MIC assay technique. The nosodes, namely C. albicans polyvalent nosode (35c, 100c), N. gonorrhoeae (35c), K. pneumoniae (35c, 100c), E. coli polyvalent nosode (35c, 100c) and Salmonella typhi polyvalent nosode (30c, 100c), were tested along with positive and negative controls. Nosodes were studied in different potencies and at 1:1 dilution.
Results C. albicans polyvalent nosode 35c, 100c, N. gonorrhoeae 35c, and positive control amphotericin B showed inhibition of the growth of C. albicans species. K. pneumoniae 35c, E. coli polyvalent nosode 100c, and meropenem (positive control) showed inhibition of the growth of K. pneumoniae; this effect was not seen with ceftriaxone, ofloxacin and amoxicillin antibiotics. E. coli polyvalent nosode 30c in 10% alcohol (direct and dilution 1:1) and the positive controls ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and amoxicillin showed inhibition of the growth of E. coli. The S. typhi polyvalent nosode 30c in 10% alcohol showed inhibition of growth of S. typhi.
Conclusion This study reveals that the tested nosodes exhibited antibacterial potential against the corresponding micro-organisms and against other selected organisms studied using this assay.
Keywordsantibacterial - nosodes - inhibitory concentration - potentized - in vitro - Escherichia coli - Klebsiella pneumoniae - Salmonella typhi - Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Candida albicans
Renuka Munshi provided the laboratory facility and contributed to the laboratory work and manuscript writing. Gitanjali Talele contributed to the laboratory work and manuscript writing. Rajesh Shah (the principal investigator) is the inventor of the drugs; he also developed the concept, supervised the laboratory work, and did the principal manuscript writing.
Received: 07 September 2020
Accepted: 12 January 2021
Article published online:
21 May 2021
© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
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