Homeopathy
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727170
Original Research Article

Evidence for Reversal of Immunosuppression by Homeopathic Medicine to a Predominant Th1-type Immune Response in BALB/c Mice Infected with Leishmania donovani

Jyoti Joshiɵ
1  Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
,
Chetna Bandralɵ
1  Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
,
Raj Kumar Manchanda
2  Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, India
,
Anil Khurana
2  Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, India
,
Debadatta Nayak
2  Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, India
,
Sukhbir Kaur
1  Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by AYUSH (CCRH) Project No. (40/2016–17) through a collaborative scheme to carry out the work.

Abstract

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that is fatal if treatment is not given. The available chemotherapeutic options are unsatisfactory, and so complementary therapies like homeopathy might be a promising approach.

Methods A nosode from a pure axenic culture of Leishmania donovani was prepared and screened for its anti-leishmanial potential both in an in-vitro and an in-vivo experimental approach.

ResultsLeishmania donovani amastigote promastigote nosode (LdAPN 30C) exhibited significant anti-leishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania donovani and was found to be safe. A study conducted on VL-infected mice revealed that LdAPN 30C resolved the disease by modulating the host immune response toward the Th1 type through upregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) and inducing nitric oxide (NO) levels in the infected macrophages. The hepatic parasite load was also found to be significantly decreased. The nosode was found to be safe, as no histological alterations in the liver or kidney were observed in the animals treated with the LdAPN 30C.

Conclusion This is the first study in which an axenic culture of Leishmania donovani has been used for the preparation of a homeopathic medication. The study highlights the anti-leishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of a homeopathic nosode in experimental VL.

ɵ - Equal contribution by both authors.


Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 26 October 2020

Accepted: 01 February 2021

Publication Date:
28 August 2021 (online)

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