Semin Thromb Hemost
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729170
Review Article

Venous Thromboembolism among Noncritically Ill Hospitalized Children: Key Considerations for the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Specialist

John M. Morrison
1  Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
2  Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida
,
Marisol Betensky
1  Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
3  Division of Pediatric Hematology, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida
,
Amy L. Kiskaddon
4  Department of Pharmacy, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida
,
Neil A. Goldenberg
1  Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
3  Division of Pediatric Hematology, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and preventable harm among noncritically ill hospitalized children. Several clinical factors relevant to the noncritically ill hospitalized child significantly increase the risk of VTE including the presence of central venous catheters, systemic inflammation, and prolonged immobilization. Although risk mitigation strategies have been described, the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VTE require standardization of institutional practices combined with multidisciplinary collaboration among pediatric hospitalists, hematologists, and other care providers. In this narrative review, we summarize the epidemiology of VTE, risk models identifying high-risk conditions associated with VTE, and prevention and treatment strategies. We further describe successful quality improvement efforts implementing institutional VTE risk stratification and thromboprophylaxis procedures. Finally, we highlight unique challenges facing pediatric hospital medicine specialists in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, including caring for adults admitted to pediatric hospital units, and describe future research opportunities for VTE in the noncritically ill hospitalized child.



Publication History

Publication Date:
07 May 2021 (online)

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA