CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Semin Liver Dis 2021; 41(04): 435-447
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731704
Review Article

Management of Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Literature Review

Anas Hashem
1  Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Precision Medicine for Obesity Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
,
Amani Khalouf
1  Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Precision Medicine for Obesity Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
,
Andres Acosta
1  Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Precision Medicine for Obesity Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
› Author Affiliations
Funding A.A. is supported by NIH (NIH K23-DK114460, C-Sig P30DK84567), ANMS Career Development Award, Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine—Gerstner Career Development Award and Magnus Trust.

Abstract

With the recent urbanization and globalization, the adult obesity rate has been increasing, which was paralleled with a dramatic surge in the incidence and prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD poses a growing threat to human health as it represents the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. It encompasses a wide spectrum of conditions starting from a build-up of fat in hepatocytes (steatosis), to developing inflammation (steatohepatitis), and reaching up to cirrhosis. It is also associated with higher rates of cardiovascular mortalities. Therefore, proper timely treatment is essential and weight loss remains the cornerstone in the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. When diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes are not successful, the current recommendation for weight loss includes antiobesity medications and bariatric endoscopic and surgical interventions. These interventions have shown to result in significant weight loss and improve liver steatosis and fibrosis. In the current literature review, we highlight the expected outcomes and side effects of the currently existing options to have a weight-centric NAFLD approach.



Publication History

Publication Date:
09 July 2021 (online)

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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