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The Efficiency of Simultaneous Systemic and Topical Use of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Fusion Surgery
Background and Aim Multilevel posterior spinal fusion surgery in adults is associated with significant intra- and postoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent for reducing blood loss and allogenic blood transfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of TXA in reducing blood loss and improving hematologic parameters in adult patients undergoing posterior thoracic/lumbar instrumented spinal fusion surgery.
Patients and Methods This is a retrospective observational study comparing the intra- and postoperative hemodynamic findings of two groups treated with and without TXA. The study included 112 adult patients receiving elective posterior thoracic/lumbar instrumented spinal fusion surgery. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, type of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit values, postoperative systemic anticoagulant use, intra- and postoperative use of blood products, and the volume of the drainage fluid as an indicator of postoperative blood loss. The TXA group received preoperative 10 mg/kg intravenous TXA, another dose of 10 mg/kg/h in isotonic solution during the operation, and local administration of TXA before the closure of the surgical site (1g in patients undergoing surgery in ≤3 segments, and 2g in patients undergoing surgery in ≥4 segment group).
Results Intra- and postoperative blood loss and need for transfusion were significantly lower in the TXA group. Fifty-three of 112 patients required intra- and postoperative transfusion, and postoperative anticoagulants were given to 25/112 patients. The postoperative Hb level was lower, and the difference of pre- and postoperative Hb values was higher in the non-TXA group (not significant).
Conclusion Simultaneous systemic and topical application of TXA is a safe and efficient blood conservation strategy for adult patients undergoing major multilevel spinal surgery.
Keywordstranexamic acid - spine - multilevel spinal surgery - spinal fusion - blood loss - transfusion
Received: 08 September 2020
Accepted: 29 December 2020
Article published online:
18 November 2021
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