Homeopathy 2022; 111(02): 134-138
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1732352
Original Research Article

Use of Homeopathic Arnica montana 30cH for Postoperative Analgesia in Female Dogs Undergoing Elective Ovariohysterectomy

David Ronald Parra Travagin
1   Department of Animal Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Melina Castilho de Souza Balbueno
2   Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Welfare, University of Santo Amaro, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3   Department of Homeopathy, HD Science School, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil
2   Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Welfare, University of Santo Amaro, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3   Department of Homeopathy, HD Science School, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations


Background Ovariohysterectomy (OH) is one of the most frequent elective surgical procedures in routine veterinary practice. Arnica montana is a well-known medicine in phytotherapy, with proven analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, healing, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. However, there is still a shortage of studies on the action and effects of the homeopathic formulation of the medicine on animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesia with Arnica montana 30cH during the postoperative period after elective OH.

Methods Thirty healthy female dogs, aged 1 to 3 years, weighing 7 to 14 kg, were selected at the Veterinary Hospital in Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil. The dogs underwent the surgical procedure with an anaesthetic protocol and analgesia that had the aim of maintaining the patient's wellbeing. After the procedure, they were randomly divided into three groups of 10. One group received Arnica montana 30cH; another received 5% hydroalcoholic solution; and the third group, 0.9% NaCl saline solution. All animals received four drops of the respective solution sublingually and under blinded conditions, every 10 minutes for 1 hour, after the inhalational anaesthetic had been withdrawn. The Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale was used to analyse the effect of therapy. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey test was used to evaluate the test data. Statistical differences were deemed significant when p ≤0.05.

Results The Arnica montana 30cH group maintained analgesia on average for 17.8 ± 3.6 hours, whilst the hydroalcoholic solution group did so for 5.1 ± 1.2 hours and the saline solution group for 4.1 ± 0.9 hours (p ≤0.05).

Conclusion These data demonstrate that Arnica montana 30cH presented a more significant analgesic effect than the control groups, thus indicating its potential for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing OH.

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 15 March 2021

Accepted: 08 June 2021

Article published online:
15 November 2021

© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

  • References

  • 1 Kustritz MVR. Population control in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018; 48: 721-732
  • 2 KuKanich B, Bidgood T, Knesl O. Clinical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2012; 39: 69-90
  • 3 Bellavite P, Marzotto M, Bonafini C. Arnica montana experimental studies: confounders and biases?. J Integr Med 2018; 16: 72-76
  • 4 Blumenthal M, Goldeberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission and Monographs. Newton: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000
  • 5 Clauser M, Aiello N, Scartezzini F, Innocenti G, Dall'Acqua S. Differences in the chemical composition of Arnica montana flowers from wild populations of north Italy. Nat Prod Commun 2014; 9: 3-6
  • 6 Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to Use of Herbals and Related Remedies. 4th ed.. Binghamton: Haworth Herbal; 1999
  • 7 Kriplani P, Guarve K, Baghael US. Arnica montana L.—a plant of healing: review. Rev J Pharm Pharmacol 2017; 69: 925-945
  • 8 Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, Maas CS. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2006; 8: 54-59
  • 9 Chaiet SR, Marcus BC. Perioperative Arnica montana for reduction of ecchymosis in rhinoplasty surgery. Ann Plast Surg 2016; 76: 477-482
  • 10 Alfredo PP, Anaruma CA, Pião ACS, João SMA, Casarotto RA. Effects of phonophoresis with Arnica montana onto acute inflammatory process in rat skeletal muscles: an experimental study. Ultrasonics 2009; 49: 466-471
  • 11 Kawakami AP, Sato C, Cardoso TN, Bonamin LV. Inflammatory process modulation by homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The role of individual variation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011: 917541
  • 12 Reid J, Nolan AM, Hughes JML, Lascelles D, Pawson P, Scott EM. Development of the short-form Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and derivation of an analgesic intervention score. Anim Welf 2007; 16: 97-104
  • 13 Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Vet World 2018; 11: 1725-1735
  • 14 Kongara K, Chambers JP, Johnson CB. Effects of tramadol, morphine or their combination in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy on peri-operative electroencephalographic responses and post-operative pain. N Z Vet J 2012; 60: 129-135
  • 15 Hart O, Mullee MA, Lewith G, Miller J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. J R Soc Med 1997; 90: 73-78
  • 16 Karpishchenko SA, Kolesnikova OM, Legkova YV. Actual considerations of post-tonsillectomy case management. Vestn Otorinolaringol 2019; 84: 94-99
  • 17 Cassu RN, Collares CM, Alegre BP, Ferreira RC, Stevanin H, Bernardi CA. Analgesia e ação antiinflamatória da Arnica montana 12ch comparativamente ao cetoprofeno em cães. Cienc Rural 2011; 41: 1784-1789
  • 18 Tsintzas D, Mahesh S, Vithoulkas G. Individualized treatment of bone marrow edema of the knee with the aid of classical homeopathy: a report of 2 cases. Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2020; 13: 1179547620904896
  • 19 Mawardi H, Ghazalh S, Shehatah A. et al. Systemic use of Arnica Montana for the reduction of postsurgical sequels following extraction of impacted mandibular 3rd molars: a pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020; 2020: 6725175
  • 20 Travagin DR, Coelho C. Use of Papaver somniferum and Arnica montana in ultra-diluted form to assist in anesthesia recovery and as analgesia for dogs having undergone ovariohysterectomy. Homeopathy 2020; 109: A11
  • 21 Iannitti T, Morales-Medina JC, Bellavite P, Rottigni V, Palmieri B. Effectiveness and safety of Arnica montana in post-surgical setting, pain and inflammation. Am J Ther 2016; 23: e184-e197
  • 22 Macêdo SB, Ferreira LR, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. Homeopathy 2004; 93: 84-87
  • 23 Sorrentino L, Piraneo S, Riggio E. et al. Is there a role for homeopathy in breast cancer surgery? A first randomized clinical trial on treatment with Arnica montana to reduce post-operative seroma and bleeding in patients undergoing total mastectomy. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2017; 6: 1-8
  • 24 Mathews KA, Pettifer G, Foster R, McDonell W. Safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of meloxicam, compared with that of ketoprofen and butorphanol in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 882-888
  • 25 Enderg TB, Braun LD, Kuzma AB. Gastrointestinal perforation in five dogs associated with the administration of meloxicam. Vet Emerg Crit Care 2006; 16: 34-43
  • 26 Monteiro-Steagall BP, Steagall PV, Lascelles BD. Systematic review of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2013; 27: 1011-1019
  • 27 Olioso D, Marzotto M, Bonafini C, Brizzi M, Bellavite P. Arnica montana effects on gene expression in a human macrophage cell line. Evaluation by quantitative real-time PCR. Homeopathy 2016; 105: 131-147
  • 28 Teixeira MZ. New homeopathic medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude. Homeopathy 2011; 100: 244-252