Homeopathy 2022; 111(04): 271-277
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1739395
Original Research Article

Effect of Ointments of Sulphur or Pyrogenium on Larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

1   Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Department of Animal Science and Rural Development Agrarian Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil
Laura Livia Arias Avilés
1   Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Department of Animal Science and Rural Development Agrarian Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil
Maria Clara Huschel Hillmann
2   Homeopathic Pharmaceutical, Milligramm Farmácia de Manipulação, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
1   Laboratory of Animal Parasitology, Department of Animal Science and Rural Development Agrarian Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq (CNPq Grant number: 402867/2017–3) and Milligramm Homeopathic Pharmacy, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil (CNPJ: 15.392.920/0001–70). Barros GP and Avilés LLA received financial support from CNPq.


Background Myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a serious problem in animal health in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Ointment-type preparations are a good option of formulation in cases of myiasis in farm and pet animals. Sulphur and Pyrogenium have already shown in-vitro efficacy on C. hominivorax. This article describes an in-vitro experiment to test the inhibition of development from exposing larvae of C. hominivorax to two homeopathic ointments (prepared individually with Sulphur or Pyrogenium).

Methods The homeopathic ointments were produced by mixing sterile lanolin, tocopherol and homeopathic medicine on a hydroalcoholic basis according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Larvae were obtained from naturally occurring myiases in sheep (wild larvae) or from a laboratory colony. The test consisted of exposing a group of 10 third-stage C. hominivorax wild larvae in contact with Sulphur or Pyrogenium ointment, or a group of 15 laboratory-propagated larvae in contact with the alcoholic vehicle of the ointment or homeopathic medicines prepared in sterile water (Sulphur or Pyrogenium), and observing the effect on the development, longevity and fertility of the blow-fly specimens.

Results The C. hominivorax larval inhibition rate was 90.0% for the Sulphur ointment group and was 86.0% for the Pyrogenium ointment group. The non-alcoholic vehicle and the alcoholic vehicle inhibited the development of 24.0% and 22.08% of the larvae respectively. Sulphur prepared in sterile water inhibited the development of 74.67% and Pyrogenium in sterile water inhibited 73.33% of larvae. Specimens that survived contact with homeopathic ointments had their longevity decreased and did not reproduce.

Conclusion Ointments of Sulphur or Pyrogenium were able to inhibit the development of C. hominivorax larvae. The ointment vehicle was harmless.

Publication History

Received: 08 April 2021

Accepted: 08 September 2021

Article published online:
08 March 2022

© 2022. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

  • References

  • 1 Costa-Júnior LM, Chaves DP, Brito DRB, Santos VAFD, Costa-Júnior HN, Barros ATM. A review on the occurrence of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019; 28: 548-562
  • 2 Pezzi M, Bonacci T, Leis M. et al. Myiasis in domestic cats: a global review. Parasit Vectors 2019; 12: 372
  • 3 Barros GP, Bricarello PA. Myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858): A Neglected Zoonosis in Brazil. Open J Vet Med 2020; 10: 80-91
  • 4 Hall M, Wall R. Myiasis of humans and domestic animals. Adv Parasitol 1995; 35: 257-334
  • 5 Marcondes CBE. Entomologia Médica e Veterinária. 2nd ed.. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2011
  • 6 Grisi L, Leite RC, Martins JR. et al. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2014; 23: 150-156
  • 7 Bricarello PA, Barros GP, Costa RG. Homeopatia em sistemas de produção animal. In: do Carmo DL, Pereira DS, Miguel ES, Lopes SO, Priore SE. eds. Pesquisa em Agroecologia: conquistas e perspectivas. Viçosa: FUNARBE; 2008: 194-210
  • 8 Sunny B, Sulthana L, James A, Sivakumar T. Maggot infestation: various treatment modalities. J Am Coll Clin Wound Spec 2018; 8: 51-53
  • 9 Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. 3rd ed.. Brazil: Ministério da Saúde; 2011. :34. Available at: https://www.gov.br/anvisa/pt-br/assuntos/farmacopeia/farmacopeia-homeopatica/arquivos/8048json-file-1
  • 10 Hahnemann S. Materia Medica Pura. Vol. 1. Franklin Classics; 2018
  • 11 Barros GP, Seugling J, Bricarello PA. Effect of homeopathic medicines and a nosode on larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Homeopathy 2019; 108: 177-182
  • 12 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Ministério da Saúde. Resolução n° 17, de 16 de abril de. 2010 . Dispõe sobre as Boas Práticas de Fabricação de Medicamentos. Available at: http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/anvisa/2010/res0017_16_04_2010.html
  • 13 Mastrangelo TA. Metodologia de produção de moscas estéreis de Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel,1958) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Brasil [PhD thesis]. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo; 2011
  • 14 Santos CEC, Carvalho MGS, Costa BE. et al. Efeito do extrato de Bidens pilosa L., Mel e pomadas homeopáticas e alopática na cicatrização de feridas cutâneas de ratos Wistar. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2020; 72: 1286-1294
  • 15 Sella BLA, Ferreira H, Dias LLR. et al. Topical use of homeopathic ointment in healing of skin wounds induced in horses. Paper presented at: I Simpósio em Produção Sustentável e Saúde Animal; March 17, 2016; Umuarama, PR
  • 16 Bonamin LV, Lagache A, Bastide M. Research on ultradilutions and the theory of corporeal signifiers: the follow up. In: Bonamin LV. ed. Signal and Images: Contributions and Contradictions about High Dilution Research. Dordrecht: Springer; 2008: 3-28
  • 17 Pedalino CMV, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JCT, Martinho KS, Massoco CdeO, Bonamin LV. Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis. Homeopathy 2004; 93: 193-198
  • 18 Lussignoli S, Bertani S, Metelmann H, Bellavite P, Conforti A. Effect of Traumeel S, a homeopathic formulation, on blood-induced inflammation in rats. Complement Ther Med 1999; 7: 225-230
  • 19 de Santana FR, Dalboni LC, Nascimento KF. et al. High dilutions of antimony modulate cytokines production and macrophage – Leishmania (L.) amazonensis interaction in vitro. Cytokine 2017; 92: 33-47
  • 20 Passeti TA, Manzoni ADJ, Ambrozino LGP. et al. Ação dos medicamentos homeopáticos Arnica montana, Gelsemium sempervirens, Belladonna, Mercurius solubillis e nosódio sobre o crescimento in-vitro da bactéria Streptococcus pyogenes . Rev Homeopat 2014; 77: 1-9
  • 21 Passeti TA, Bissoli LR, Macedo AP, Libame RB, Diniz S, Waisse S. Action of antibiotic oxacillin on in-vitro growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) previously treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy 2017; 106: 27-31
  • 22 Bonamin LV. Homeopathy and experimental infections: In vivo and in vitro experiments with bacteria, fungi and protozoan. La Rev d'Homéopathie 2019; 10: 29-32
  • 23 Bonamin LV, Cardoso TN, de Carvalho AC, Amaral JG. The use of animal models in homeopathic research–a review of 2010-2014 PubMed indexed papers. Homeopathy 2015; 104: 283-291
  • 24 Vithoulkas G. The Science of Homeopathy. New York: Grove Press Inc.; 1980
  • 25 Giesel A, Boff MIC, Boff P. Atividade de formigas cortadeiras Acromyrmex spp. submetidas a preparações homeopáticas. Acta Sci Agron 2012; 34: 445-451
  • 26 Itamura R. Effect of homeopathic treatment of 60 Japanese patients with chronic skin disease. Complement Ther Med 2007; 15: 115-120
  • 27 Itamura R, Hosoya R. Homeopathic treatment of Japanese patients with intractable atopic dermatitis. Homeopathy 2003; 92: 108-114
  • 28 Eizayaga JE, Eizayaga JI. Prospective observational study of 42 patients with atopic dermatitis treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy 2012; 101: 21-27
  • 29 Lenger K. Wound healing according to biochemical laws by highly potentized homeopathic remedies containing magnetic photons. Int J Appl Sci 2018; 5: 1-8
  • 30 Ahmad S, Abbasi WM, Rehman T. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of Belladonna and Pyrogenium ultrahigh dilutions in induced fever model: antipyretic effects of Belladonna and Pyrogenium . J Complement Integr Med 2019; 16: 1-6
  • 31 Shah PJ. In vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrogenium [PhD thesis]. Gujarat: Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University; 2014
  • 32 Semkina OA. Ointments, gels, liniments, and creams containing phytopreparations (a review). Pharm Chem J 2005; 39: 369-374
  • 33 Ludwig J, Weiser M. Tratamiento de traumatismos infantiles con una pomada homeopática. Med Biol (Milano) 2003; 16: 82-84
  • 34 Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y. et al. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL S® in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer 2001; 92: 684-690
  • 35 Müller-Löbnitz C, Göthel D. Review of the clinical efficacy of the multicomponent combination medication Traumeel and its components. Altern Ther Health Med 2011; 17: 18-31
  • 36 Hill N, Stam C, van Haselen RA. The efficacy of Prrrikweg gel in the treatment of insect bites: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pharm World Sci 1996; 18: 35-41
  • 37 Hill N, Stam C, Tuinder S, van Haselen RA. A placebo controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in reducing mosquito bite induced erythema. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 49: 103-108
  • 38 Bisciotti GN, Volpi P, Amato M. et al. Italian consensus conference on guidelines for conservative treatment on lower limb muscle injuries in athlete. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2018; 4: e000323