CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Revista Urología Colombiana / Colombian Urology Journal 2022; 31(04): e143-e148
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1746203
Original Article | Artículo Original

Association between Genitourinary and Congenital Heart Defects: A 52-year Case-Control Study of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC)

Asociación entre cardiopatías congénitas y malformaciones congénitas urinarias: Un estudio de casos y controles de 52 años del Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénita
Nicolas Fernandez
1   Division of Urology, Department of Pediatric Urology, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States
Daniela Varela
2   Research Department, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia
Juliana Villanueva
2   Research Department, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia
Jorge Lopez Camelo
3   Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), Center for Medical Education and Clinical Research (CEMIC-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Ignacio Zarante
4   Human Genetics Institute, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
› Author Affiliations


Background Congenital urological anomalies are present in 4.3/10 thousand newborns, and their association with other anomalies may increase the overall mortality and disability. The present study establishes the risk of having congenital urological anomalies presenting associated cardiopathies.

Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas, ECLAMC, in Spanish). The analysis included all registered cases of congenital urological malformation from 1967 to 2019. Patients with or without associated heart defects were included for the statistical analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We compared the variables with the Chi-squared test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, United States) software, version 27.0. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results A total of 7,767,161 newborns were evaluated, and 17,834 genital and upper urinary tract malformations were identified. Of these, 64.2% were genital anomalies, and 35.8% were abnormalities of the upper urinary tract. Genitourinary malformations and concomitant congenital heart defects (GU + C) were observed in 3.5% of the cases. Subjects with GU + C had a higher number of malformations (4.59 ± 2.3) than patients without heart defects (1.53 ± 1.58) (p < 0.000). The OR was of 3.61 (range: 1.86–7.00) for cloacal exstrophy, of 4.01 (range: 3.14–5.12) for imperforate anus, of 5.52 (range: 3.92–7.78) for horseshoe kidney, and of 13.7 (range: 6.65–28.22) for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) with malformations of the upper urinary tract.

Conclusion The association of congenital heart defects with urological anomalies is higher for complex congenital anomalies such as imperforate anus, cloacal exstrophy, and horseshoe kidney. Patients with urological abnormalities and Down syndrome have the highest likelihood.


Introducción Las malformaciones congénitas urológicas están presentes en 4,3/10 mil, y su asociación con otros defectos puede aumentar la mortalidad global y la discapacidad. Este estudio analiza la presentación de las malformaciones congénitas urológicas asociadas a las cardiopatías congénitas.

Métodos Este es un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles que usa el Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congénitas (ECLAMC). Se incluyeron todos los casos registrados de malformaciones congénitas urológicas de 1967 a 2019, y todos los casos con y sin defectos cardiacos. Se calculó la razón de disparidad (RD) usando un intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Se probó la hipótesis con el Chi-cuadrado y análisis de la varianza (analysis of variance, ANOVA, en inglés). Se realizó el análisis estadístico por medio del programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, Estados Unidos), versión 27.0. Se consideró la significancia estadística con valores de p < 0,05.

Resultados Se evaluaron 7.767.161 recién nacidos, y se identificaron 17.834 malformaciones genitales y del tracto urinario superior. De estas, 64,2% fueron genitales, y 35,8%, de vías urinarias superiores. El 3,5% de los casos tenían malformaciones genitourinarias y defectos cardiacos congénitos concomitantes (GU + C). Aquellos con GU + C tenían mayor número de malformaciones (4,59 ± 2,3) que los pacientes sin defectos cardiacos (1,53 ± 1,58) (p < 0,000). La RD fue de 3.61 (rango: 1,86–700) para la extrofia cloacal, de 4,01 (3,14–5,12) para el ano imperforado, de 5,52 (3,92–7,78) para el riñón en herradura, y de 13,7 (6,65–28,22) para la trisomía 21 (síndrome de Down) con malformaciones del tracto urinario superior.

Conclusión La asociación entre defectos cardiacos congénitos y anomalías urológicas es significativa en malformaciones congénitas complejas como el ano imperforado, la extrofia cloacal, y el riñón en herradura. Los pacientes con síndrome de Down y malformaciones urológicas tienen la mayor probabilidad.

Ethical Approval

The present study did not need approval from the ethics committee. The procedures used herein adhere to the Declaration of Helsinki.


All authors made substantial contributions to all stages of the development of the present investigation and approved the final version to be published.

Publication History

Received: 08 January 2022

Accepted: 07 March 2022

Article published online:
28 December 2022

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