CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1749378
Original Article

Development and Validation of Nocturia-Related Quality of Life Assessment Scale among Adults

Susamma Varughese
1   Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Father Muller College of Nursing, Nitte University Mangaluru, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Thekke Puthalath Rajeev
2   Department of Urology, K S Hegde Hospital, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Devina E. Rodrigues
3   Department of Community Health Nursing, Father Muller College of Nursing, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Suresh Sucharitha
4   Department of Hospital Administration, Father Muller Medical College, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Background Nocturia has high impact on quality of life (QoL) based on varying geographical and cultural factors. Speculating this, nocturia-related QoL (NRQoL) assessment scale was developed precisely, appropriate to the Indian context.

Objective The current study aimed to develop and validate an NRQoL assessment scale for Indian adults.

Methods An exploratory descriptive design was performed among 420 cases and 206 controls aged 35 to 65 years from two selected tertiary hospitals in Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. The NRQoL assessment scale was formulated through the following phases: review of literature, evaluation by experts, and pretesting. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to reduce the number of items and to define domains. Reliability, construct validity, discriminant validity, and convergent validity of the scale were calculated.

Results EFA resulted in the removal of seven items from a 36-item instrument, resulting NRQoL assessment scale into six domains as follows: (1) functional, (2) sleep, (3) emotional, (4) physical, (5) social and family, and (6) spiritual. The findings from the tertiary hospitals study confirmed that the scale was valid and reliable to measure NRQoL among adults.

Conclusion The NRQoL assessment scale is a new, valid, and reliable instrument that is well-understood by adults and can be answered quickly. It is a useful new tool that can be translated and tested in other cultures and languages.

Publication History

Article published online:
29 January 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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