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Audio-Visual Training Improves Awareness and Willingness of Cervical Cancer Screening among Healthy Indian Women: Findings from a Survey
Objectives We evaluated the impact of a standardized, simple audio-visual (AV) training video developed in regional languages on cervical cancer awareness among apparently healthy women and their willingness to undergo regular cervical cancer screening.
Materials and Methods This cross-sectional noninterventional multicentric survey was conducted in 69 centers across 14 states in India and one center in UAE among women aged between 18 and 88 years attending clinics for a variety of indications. Using a short questionnaire, cervical cancer awareness and willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening were assessed before and after the AV training.
Statistical Analysis In addition to descriptive analysis, improvement in awareness after the AV training was assessed using McNemar's test, and comparison of responses between subgroups was performed using Pearson chi-squared test.
Results The survey was completed by 3,188 apparently healthy women (mean age: 36.8 ± 11.3 years). Before AV training, correct answers were given to only 4/6 questions by majority of the participants; most participants were unaware about the main cause of cervical cancer (1,637/3,188, 51.4%), availability of cervical cancer screening tests (1,601/3,188, 50.2%), and cervical cancer vaccines (1,742/3,188, 54.6%). Only 576 women (18.1%) had undergone cervical cancer screening in the past. After the AV training, the proportion of women correctly responding to all six questions improved significantly (p < 0.05), and 84.4% (2691/3188) women showed willingness to undergo periodic cervical cancer screening. Compared to unmarried and professional women, although married women and home-makers had lower awareness scores, the latter subgroups had more often undergone previous cervical cancer screening.
Conclusion It is possible to improve cervical cancer awareness among healthy women, and to enhance their willingness to undergo regular cervical cancer screening tests using a simple, six minute-long, standardized AV training material.
Dr Priya Ganeshkumar was involved in conceptualization, methodology, data collection, curation, and analysis, and writing of original draft and final draft.
Ethical Committee Approval
Since this is a multicentered survey of healthy women and no intervention was performed, and since no identifying information was obtained from the participants, ethics committee approval is not deemed necessary. The entire research was performed with full conformation to the ethical principles enshrined in the Declaration of Helsinki and all other relevant applicable guidelines. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to their enrolment into the study, and participant information was kept completely confidential.
Article published online:
22 August 2022
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