Subscribe to RSS
Individualized Homeopathic Medicines in Treatment of Hyperuricemia: Evaluation by Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Introduction Hyperuricemia (HU) is a major health issue in India and across the globe. It increases the disease burden and hampers quality of life. This study was aimed at exploring the effects of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) against placebo in the treatment of HU.
Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients suffering from HU in the outpatient department of D. N. De Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. Each patient received either IHMs or identical-looking placebos, along with advice on dietary modifications irrespective of codes. Serum uric acid (SUA) level was the primary outcome measure; the HU quality of life questionnaire (HUQLQ) and the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP-2) were the secondary outcomes; all measured at baseline, and every month, up to 3 months. Group differences were examined by two-way (split-half) repeated-measures analysis of variance after adjusting for baseline differences. Significance level was set at p ≤0.05, two-tailed.
Results The intention-to-treat sample (n = 58) was analyzed. Between-group differences in SUA levels (F 1, 56 = 13.833, p <0.001), HUQLQ scores (F 1, 56 = 32.982, p <0.001) and MYMOP-2 profile scores (F 1, 56 = 23.873, p <0.001) were statistically significant, favoring IHMs against placebos, with medium to large effect sizes. Calcarea carbonica and Pulsatilla nigricans were the most frequently prescribed medicines. No serious adverse events were reported from either of the groups.
Conclusion IHMs showed significantly better results than placebos in reducing SUA levels and improving quality of life in patients suffering from HU.
Trial registration CTRI/2019/10/021503; UTN: U1111–1241–1431.
The trial was conducted as part of the postgraduate thesis of the corresponding author.
P.G., S.G., S.K.M., S.D. and A.R.S. contributed to the literature search, study concept, conducting the trial, data collection, data evaluation and drafting the manuscript. S.S.A., N.K.S., P.B., M.K., and S.S. contributed to study design, data interpretation, statistical analysis, and drafting of the manuscript. All the authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript for submission.
Received: 25 November 2021
Accepted: 22 March 2022
Article published online:
19 September 2022
© 2022. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Jenks SJ. Laboratory reference ranges. In: Ralston SH, Penman ID, Strachan MWJ, Hobson RP. eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 23rd ed. Elsevier: 2018: 1360
- 2 Li L, Zhang Y, Zeng C. Update on the epidemiology, genetics, and therapeutic options of hyperuricemia. Am J Transl Res 2020; 12: 3167-3181
- 3 Wang H, Zhang H, Sun L, Guo W. Roles of hyperuricemia in metabolic syndrome and cardiac-kidney-vascular system diseases. Am J Transl Res 2018; 10: 2749-2763
- 4 Dehlin M, Jacobsson L, Roddy E. Global epidemiology of gout: prevalence, incidence, treatment patterns and risk factors. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2020; 16: 380-390
- 5 George C, Minter DA. Hyperuricemia.. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2021. . Accessed July 20, 2021 at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459218/
- 6 Chen-Xu M, Yokose C, Rai SK, Pillinger MH, Choi HK. Contemporary prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the United States and decadal trends: the national health and nutrition examination survey, 2007-2016. Arthritis Rheumatol 2019; 71: 991-999
- 7 Billa G, Dargad R, Mehta A. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in Indian subjects attending hyperuricemia screening programs—a retrospective study. J Assoc Physicians India 2018; 66: 43-46
- 8 Mukhopadhyay P, Ghosh S, Pandit K, Chatterjee P, Majhi B, Chowdhury S. Uric acid and its correlation with various metabolic parameters: a population-based study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2019; 23: 134-139
- 9 Patel H, Shah D. Hyperuricemia prevalence in Indian subjects with underlying comorbidities of hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study from subjects attending hyperuricemia screening camps. Int J Res Med Sci 2020; 8: 794
- 10 Cicero AFG, Fogacci F, Kuwabara M, Borghi C. Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia: an evidence-based update. Medicina (Kaunas) 2021; 57: 58
- 11 Strilchuk L, Fogacci F, Cicero AF. Safety and tolerability of available urate-lowering drugs: a critical review. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019; 18: 261-271
- 12 Bate RA. The arthritic diathesis. JAMA 1899; XXXII: 420-421
- 13 Dossett ML, Yeh GY. Homeopathy use in the USA and implications for public health: a review. Homeopathy 2018; 107: 3-9
- 14 Moride Y. Methodological considerations in the assessment of effectiveness of homeopathic care: a critical review of the EPI3 study. Homeopathy 2021; 111: 147-151
- 15 Mathie RT, Hacke D, Clausen J, Nicolai T, Riley DS, Fisher P. Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in humans: characterising the research journal literature for systematic review. Homeopathy 2013; 102: 3-24
- 16 Cara R, Tikly PM, Solomon EM. et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute gout. Am J Homeopathic Med 2007; 100: 40-49
- 17 Saha S, Sarkar P, Chattopadhyay R. et al. An open-label prospective observational trial for assessing the effect of homoeopathic medicines in patients suffering from gout. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2019; 13: 236-243
- 18 Nayak C, Pattanaik N, Chattopadhyay A. et al. Individualized homeopathic medicines and Urtica urens mother tincture in treatment of hyperuricemia: an open, randomized, pragmatic, pilot trial. J Complement Integr Med 2020; 18: 599-608
- 19 Gautam P. A case report of hyperuricaemia with nephrolithiasis treated with homoeopathy. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2021; 15: 147-154
- 20 World Medical Association.. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Bull World Health Organ 2001; 79: 373-374
- 21 Kakutani-Hatayama M, Kadoya M, Okazaki H. et al. Nonpharmacological management of gout and hyperuricemia: hints for better lifestyle. Am J Lifestyle Med 2015; 11: 321-329
- 22 Saha S, Chattopadhyay R, Das S. et al. Development of Bengali version of a questionnaire assessing impact of hyperuricemia on quality of life. J Sci Soc 2021; 48: 79-92
- 23 Paterson C. Measuring outcomes in primary care: a patient generated measure, MYMOP, compared with the SF-36 health survey. BMJ 1996; 312: 1016-1020
- 24 Paterson C, Britten N. In pursuit of patient-centred outcomes: a qualitative evaluation of the ‘Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile’. J Health Serv Res Policy 2000; 5: 27-36
- 25 Gupta SK. Intention-to-treat concept: a review. Perspect Clin Res 2011; 2: 109-112
- 26 Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT Group. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ 2010; 340: c332
- 27 Dean ME, Coulter MK, Fisher P, Jobst K, Walach H. Reporting data on homeopathic treatments (RedHot): a supplement to CONSORT. Homeopathy 2007; 96: 42-45
- 28 Hahnemann CFS. Organon of Medicine. 5th ed. 12th impression, 2018. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; Aphorism 161, footnote 2; p.98
- 29 Roberts HA. Principles and Art of Cure by Homoeopathy. Ch. VIII. Taking the Case. Reprint ed. New Delhi: Indian Books and Periodicals Publishers; 2006. p.78
- 30 Burnett JC. Gout and its Cure, 11th impression. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2019
- 31 Farrington EA. Lesser Writings with Therapeutic Hints, Reprint ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2004: 258-264
- 32 Grauvogl V. Text Book of Homoeopathy, Part II. New York: Boericke & Tafel; 1870: 32
- 33 Kent JT. New Remedies, Clinical Cases, Lesser Writings, Aphorisms and Precepts. 14th impression. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2019: 221-222
- 34 Hering C. The Homoeopathic Domestic Physician, 11th American ed. Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel; 1904: 412
- 35 Selected Aphorisms of Hippocrates with comments by Dr. von Boenninghausen. The Homoeopathic Recorder, Vol. LVIII. , No, 10, 11, 12 (April, May, June); 1943
- 36 Dudgeon RE. Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Homoeopathy, 7th impression. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2015: 425
- 37 Allen JH. The Chronic Miasms with Repertory; rearranged and augmented ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2015: 223
- 38 Choudhury H. Indications of Miasms, 2nd ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2005: 80-81
- 39 Hahnemann S. The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and their Homoeopathic Cure Vol. I, 13th impression. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd; 2011: 68
- 40 Shaffique S, Ahmed S, Rehman T. et al. Anti-hyperuricemic potential of Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja syn. Ledum palustre L. 30c and 1M in potassium oxonate induced rat model. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2018; 17: 724-731