Subscribe to RSS
Evaluation of the Effects of Administering Ultradiluted Avena sativa and Echinacea angustifolia on the Hematological Parameters of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) during the Reproductive Period
Background and Aims Penguins are seabirds that manifest physiological and immunological alterations during the reproductive season. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the laboratory parameters of male and female Magellanic penguins and to determine the penguins' hematological response to homeopathic medicines during that reproductive period.
Methods Penguins (N = 18), kept under human care in a zoological park setting, were evaluated during the reproductive period and were divided randomly into two groups: a group subjected to treatment with Echinacea angustifolia 6cH and Avena sativa 6cH (N = 8; four breeding couples), and a placebo control group (N = 10; five breeding couples). The investigators were blinded to treatment allocation. Two-way ANOVA was performed to determine whether the experimental group (control or verum) and the sex of the animal had any significant effect on the variation of each hematological parameter between the samples. One-way ANOVA was performed on hematological parameters for which the sex did not present a significant effect. The significance level was p ≤0.05.
Results Significant effects were seen regarding the following: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), in which the verum group showed an increase (29.78 ± 52.95 fL) while the control group showed stability/reduction (−3.08 ± 46.36 fL) (p = 0.049); proportion of heterophils, in which the verum group showed a less marked increase (8.38 ± 12.53%) than that of the control group (18.00 ± 9.37%) (p = 0.010); lymphocyte concentration, in which the verum group showed less marked reduction (−4.39 ± 2.21 × 109 cells/L) than that of the control group (−1.56 ± 2.76 × 109 cells/L) (p = 0.001); and proportion of lymphocytes, in which the verum group showed a less marked reduction (−6.75 ± 10.35%) than that of the control group (−17.3 ± 8.73%) (p = 0.002).
Conclusion Comparison of samples collected before and during the reproductive period showed that, regardless of group allocation, there were differences in the effects on MCV, heterophils and lymphocytes. Treatment with Echinacea angustifolia and Avena sativa resulted in maintenance of lymphocyte levels in Magellanic penguins during the breeding period, thus aiding these birds' immunity.
Received: 03 January 2022
Accepted: 04 May 2022
Article published online:
03 November 2022
© 2022. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Boersma P, Borboroglu P, Frere E. et al. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). In: García-Borboroglu P, Boersma PD. eds. Penguins: Natural History and Conservation. Seattle: University of Washington Press; 2013
- 2 Williams TD, Boersma PD. Magellanic penguins. In: Perrins CM, Bock WJ, Kikkawa J. eds. The Penguins (Bird Families of the World). New York: Oxford University Press; 1995
- 3 Moreno J, Yorio P, Borboroglu PG. et al. Health state and reproductive output in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) . Ethol Ecol Evol 2002; 14: 19-28
- 4 Gallo L, Vanstreels RET, Cook RA. et al. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and trace element reference values for free-ranging adult Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Polar Biol 2019; 42: 733-742
- 5 Costa NC, Araújo RL, Freitas GBL. Homeopathy: a fundamental therapeutic field in the veterinary care of breeding animals. Salus-Guarapuava Magazine (PR) 2009; 3: 75-89
- 6 Coelho CP, Motta PD, Petrillo M. et al. Homeopathic medicine Cantharis modulates uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-induced cystitis in susceptible mice. Cytokine 2017; 92: 103-109
- 7 Balbueno MCS, Peixoto Junior KDC, Coelho CP. Evaluation of the efficacy of Crataegus oxyacantha in dogs with early-stage heart failure. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 224-229
- 8 Narita FB, Balbueno MCS, Scardoeli B, Gallo Neto H, Coelho CP. Treatment of fibropapillomatosis in a green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) using ultra-diluted: case report. Integr J Vet Biosci 2021; 5: 1-3
- 9 Campbell TW, Ellis CK. Avian and Exotic Animal Hematology a Cytology. 3rd ed.. Ames: Blackwell Publishing Professional; 2007
- 10 Moreno J, de León A, Fargallo JA, Moreno E. Breeding time, health and immune response in the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica . Oecologia 1998; 115: 312-319
- 11 Mayorga LSFP, Bhering RCC, Medeiros LCC. et al. Hematological and biochemical values of Magellanic penguins in rehabilitation in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Pesqui Vet Bras 2016; 36 (Suppl 1): 65-70
- 12 Palacios MG, D'Amico VL, Bertellotti M. Ecotourism effects on health and immunity of Magellanic penguins at two reproductive colonies with disparate touristic regimes and population trends. Conserv Physiol 2018; 6: coy060
- 13 Travis EK, Vargas FH, Merkel J, Gottdenker N, Miller RE, Parker PG. Hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. J Wildl Dis 2006; 42: 625-632
- 14 Parsons NJ, Schaefer AM, van der Spuy SD, Gous TA. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus). J S Afr Vet Assoc 2015; 86: e1-e8
- 15 Harmon BG. Avian heterophils in inflammation and disease resistance. Poult Sci 1998; 77: 972-977
- 16 Glombowsky P, Campigotto G, Galli GM. et al. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli in broilers: impacts of the disease and benefits of preventive consumption of a stimulator of homeopathic immunity. Microb Pathog 2020; 149: 104570
- 17 Oliver EA, Prado EAS, Rodrigues FIP. et al. Effect of the combination of the homeopathic extract of Echinacea angustifolia dc with acupuncture in unspecific immunostimulation points in newborn pigs. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria – REDVET 2006; 7: 1-5
- 18 Pedalino CM, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JCT, Martinho KS, Massoco CdeO, Bonamin LV. Effect of Atropa belladonna and Echinacea angustifolia in homeopathic dilution on experimental peritonitis. Homeopathy 2004; 93: 193-198
- 19 Narita FB, Scardoeli B, Gallo Neto H, Coelho CP. Homeopathic treatment of pododermatitis in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Homeopathy 2021; 110: 62-66
- 20 Narita FB, Coelho CP. Control of liver enzymes in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) through ultra-diluted medicine. Homeopathy 2020; 109: A6
- 21 Coelho C, Von Ancken ACB. Use of homeopathy in clinical and preventive medicine of wild animals. Technical Bulletin ABRAVAS, year III, n°32 - Mar/2019. Available at http://abravas.org.br/conteudo.php?go=83&file=resumos-do-boletim-tecnico-abravas.html
- 22 Melo TCS, Coelho CP, Summa J. et al. Lachesis muta and Folliculinum in the regulation of the estral cycle of puma concolor . Paper presented at: XXIX Meeting and XXIII ABRAVAS Congress, October 05, 2021 to October 09, 2021