Subscribe to RSS
The Relationship between Sphenoid Sinus, Carotid Canal, and Optical Canal in Paranasal Sinus Computed Tomography in Children
Objectives The authors examined the structural differences in the paranasal sinus region at sphenoid sinus in the pediatric population.
Methods Paranasal sinus computed tomography (PNSCT) images of 86 pediatric subjects (30 males, 56 females) were included. In 13 to 15 years of age group (n=34) and ≥16 years of age group (n=52), sphenoid sinus pneumatization (SSP), optic canal and carotid canal classifications and dehiscence evaluation were performed.
Results In both sexes, type 1 and type 2 SS pneumatization were observed more frequently on both the right and left sides. On the right side, type 2> type 1; on the left side type 1> type 2 optic canals were detected in both gender. Type 3 optic canals were detected in 8.8 to 14.7% of the 13 to 15 years of age group; and 11.5 to 17.3% of ≥16 years of age group. Type 4 optic canals were detected in 2.9% of the 13 to 15 years of age group and 1.9% of the ≥16 years of age group bilaterally. Optic canal dehiscence was detected in 26.5% of the 13 to 15 years of age group and 17.3% of the ≥16 years of age group. Type 1 and type 2 carotid canals are most common in children, the percentages for type 3 carotid canals were 1.8 to 3.6% in children.
Conclusion In pneumatized SS, optic canal classifications got increased values which showed protrusion into the sphenoid sinus wall. Therefore, in children, the surgeons must be very careful for optic canal being nearer to the sphenoid sinus walls.
S.T. and M.İ. are the guarantors of integrity of the entire study and they did clinical studies.S.T., N.B.M., M.İ., A.G., and Z.Ş. studied concepts and design and did literature search. N.B.M. did the statistical analysis and manuscript editing. N.B.M. and S.T. prepared the manuscript.
Ethics Committee Approval
This study is retrospective. Ethics committee approval was obtained from Kırıkkale University Non-invasive Research Ethics Committee (Date: August 21, 2019, Number: 2019.08.02).
There is no need to take informed consent, because the data were evaluated retrospectively.
There are no funds for this article.
Received: 11 May 2021
Accepted: 17 June 2022
Article published online:
02 September 2022
© 2022. Thieme. All rights reserved.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Anderhuber W, Weiglein A, Wolf G. [Nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses in newborns and children]. Acta Anat (Basel) 1992; 144 (02) 120-126
- 2 Mohebbi A, Ahmadi A, Etemadi M, Safdarian M, Ghourchian S. An epidemiologic study of factors associated with nasal septum deviation by computed tomography scan: a cross sectional study. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 2012; 12: 15
- 3 Cannavò S, Venturino M, Curtò L. et al. Clinical presentation and outcome of pituitary adenomas in teenagers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003; 58 (04) 519-527
- 4 Kim HJ, Jung Cho M, Lee J-W. et al. The relationship between anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses and chronic sinusitis in children. Acta Otolaryngol 2006; 126 (10) 1067-1072
- 5 Siedek V, Stelter K, Betz CS, Berghaus A, Leunig A. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery–a retrospective analysis of 115 children and adolescents with chronic rhinosinusitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2009; 73 (05) 741-745
- 6 Eviatar E, Pitaro K, Gavriel H, Krakovsky D. Complications following powered endoscopic sinus surgery: an 11 year study on 1190 patients in a single institute in Israel. Isr Med Assoc J 2014; 16 (06) 338-340
- 7 Arıcıgil M, Yücel A. Çocuklarda Endoskopik Sinüs Cerrahisi: 10 Yıllık Tecrübemiz. KBB-Forum 2017; 16 (02) 53-57
- 8 Asal N, Bayar Muluk N, Inal M, Şahan MH, Doğan A, Arıkan OK. Carotid canal and optic canal at sphenoid sinus. Neurosurg Rev 2019; 42 (02) 519-529
- 9 Hamid O, El Fiky L, Hassan O, Kotb A, El Fiky S. Anatomic variations of the sphenoid sinus and their impact on trans-sphenoid pituitary surgery. Skull Base 2008; 18 (01) 9-15
- 10 Palabıyık F. Imaging of the anatomic variations and dangerous areas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity in pediatric patients. IKSST Dergisi 2018; 10 (01) 36-42
- 11 Locatelli D, Veiceschi P, Castelnuovo P. et al. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas in pediatric patients: a multicentric retrospective study. Childs Nerv Syst 2019; 35 (11) 2119-2126
- 12 Johnson DM, Hopkins RJ, Hanafee WN, Fisk JD. The unprotected parasphenoidal carotid artery studied by high-resolution computed tomography. Radiology 1985; 155 (01) 137-141
- 13 Labib MA, Prevedello DM, Carrau R. et al. A road map to the internal carotid artery in expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches to the ventral cranial base. Neurosurgery 2014; 10 (Suppl. 03) 448-471 , discussion 471
- 14 Kennedy DW, Zinreich SJ, Hassab MH. The internal carotid artery as it relates to endonasal sphenoethmoidectomy. Am J Rhinol 1990; 4 (01) 7-12
- 15 Cashman EC, Macmahon PJ, Smyth D. Computed tomography scans of paranasal sinuses before functional endoscopic sinus surgery. World J Radiol 2011; 3 (08) 199-204
- 16 Unlu A, Meco C, Ugur HC, Comert A, Ozdemir M, Elhan A. Endoscopic anatomy of sphenoid sinus for pituitary surgery. Clin Anat 2008; 21 (07) 627-632
- 17 Kölln KA, Senior BA. Conventional and endoscopic approaches to the pituitary: an integrated anatomical and computerized tomography study. Eur Radiol 2006; 16: 2092-2099