CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Neurol Surg Rep 2022; 83(03): e105-e109
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1755599
Case Report

High-Grade Biphenotypic Sinonasal Sarcoma: A Case Report

Sukaina Hasnie
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
,
Chad Glenn
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
,
Jo E. G. Peterson
2   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
,
Edward T. El Rassi
2   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
,
Kibwei A. McKinney
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Introduction Biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (BSNS) is a recently found entity that first described by Lewis et al. It was then added to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) of head and neck tumors in 2012. BSNS has been described as a rare low-grade sarcoma arising in the upper sinonasal tract. It is believed that in the past, BSNS was, likely, previously diagnosed as other low-grade or benign malignancies. Fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors, all fall within the differential diagnosis of BSNS. However, BSNS is unlike other mesenchymal sinonasal tumors, as it displays both neural and myogenic differentiation. BSNS has thus far been recognized in only a hand full of case reports, all of which have reported similar morphologic features of a low-grade soft tissue tumor with neural involvement arising from the nasal cavity or ethmoid air cells in middle aged individuals. In fact, being low-grade sarcoma became such a hallmark characteristic of this tumor that it even received the name low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features or LGSSNMF.

Case Presentation We present, however, for the first time, a high-grade differentiation of BSNS in an otherwise healthy 72-year-old female. The patient was referred from an outside ENT (ear, nose, and throat) after pathology from a presumed polypectomy returned positive for a BSNS. Initial imaging revealed erosion through the bilateral lamina papyracea, anterior cranial fossa floor, and posterior table of the frontal sinus. She then underwent a combined endoscopic and bicoronal open approach for resection of the skull base lesion that was found to encompass the entirety of the sinonasal cavities bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient underwent significant complications including infection of the pericranial flap, pneumocephalus, and eventually death.

Discussion As BSNS is a fairly new entity, currently there has only been four case series conducted, each identifying features of a low-grade sarcoma with both myogenic and neural differentiation. Histologically, BSNS has monophasic spindle cells with uniform, elongated nuclei with scant cytoplasm between benign proliferations of surface-type respiratory epithelium, with a low mitotic rate. Our case, however, revealed pleomorphic hyperchromatic cells with high mitotic activity and necrosis with invasion of bone, staging it as high grade. Immunohistochemistry also differed from the previously reported standards. This case describes a new category for BSNS which may change the differential diagnosis, management, and surgical recommendations that are currently utilized for this skull base neoplasm.



Publication History

Received: 18 July 2021

Accepted: 24 June 2022

Article published online:
13 September 2022

© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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