Pharmacopsychiatry 2018; 51(04): 136-143
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-118664
Review
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Drink and Think: Impact of Alcohol on Cognitive Functions and Dementia – Evidence of Dose-Related Effects

Stefan Gutwinski
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – Universitätsmedizin/Psychiatric Hospital of the Charité in the St. Hedwigs Hospital, Berlin, Germany
,
Stefanie Schreiter
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – Universitätsmedizin/Psychiatric Hospital of the Charité in the St. Hedwigs Hospital, Berlin, Germany
,
Josef Priller
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, DZNE and BIH, Berlin, Germany
,
Jonathan Henssler
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – Universitätsmedizin/Psychiatric Hospital of the Charité in the St. Hedwigs Hospital, Berlin, Germany
,
Corinde E. Wiers
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA
,
Andreas Heinz
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – Universitätsmedizin/Psychiatric Hospital of the Charité in the St. Hedwigs Hospital, Berlin, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 03 July 2017
revised 03 July 2017

accepted 16 August 2017

Publication Date:
26 September 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Regular alcohol consumption affects cognitive performance and the development of dementia. So far, findings are contradicting, which might be explained in part by dose-related effects. For this narrative review, we undertook a literature search for surveys investigating the impact of alcohol consumption on cognitive performance and the development of dementia. The majority of studies observed a U-shaped relationship between regular alcohol consumption and cognitive function: frequent heavy consumption of alcohol alters brain functions and decreases cognitive performance; regular light and moderate consumption may have protective impact. In many studies, total abstainers show an inferior cognitive performance than people with moderate or light consumption. Nevertheless, policy implications are difficult to draw for at least 2 reasons: (1) the possible risks associated with alcohol consumption and (2) the potential confounders in the group of non-consumers and heavy consumers.