CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Homeopathy 2023; 112(04): 226-239
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1760845
Review Article

Recommendations for Designing, Conducting and Reporting Clinical Observational Studies in Homeopathic Veterinary Medicine

1   WissHom: Research Department, Scientific Society for Homeopathy, Köthen, Germany
Michael Frass
2   Department of Medicine I (emeritus), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
3   Institute for Homeopathic Research, Vienna, Austria
Philippa Fibert
4   Department of Psychology and Pedagogic Science, St Mary's University, Twickenham, United Kingdom
Christien Klein-Laansma
5   Louis Bolk Institute, Health and Nutrition, Bunnik, The Netherlands
Susanne Ulbrich-Zürni
6   WissHom: Scientific Society for Homeopathy, Köthen, Germany
7   Institute of Integrative Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, Herdecke, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Funding The project was partly funded by Homöopathie-Stiftung des DZVhÄ (Foundation of the German Central Association of Homeopathic Doctors), Berlin, and Robert Bosch Stiftung (Robert Bosch Foundation), Stuttgart, Germany. The funders had no influence on the conduct, content, implementation or publication of the project.


Background Clinical observational studies are an important methodological approach in human and veterinary research, examining and describing treatment experience with good external validity. There are currently few observational studies in the field of homeopathic veterinary medicine.

Aim The aim of the study was to develop recommendations for designing, conducting and reporting observational studies in homeopathic veterinary medicine.

Materials and Methods A literature review was performed using various search strategies for identifying guidelines and checklist tools relevant for observational studies, veterinary research and homeopathy. Useful guidelines were selected. Prior recommendations for designing and conducting observational studies in human homeopathic medicine were supplemented with recommendations for homeopathic veterinary medicine that were evaluated by an expert panel.

Results The veterinary extension of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology – Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) statement was identified as a useful tool to improve the reporting quality of observational studies, and it has been supplemented here with additional recommendations that are applicable to homeopathy. STROBE-Vet is complemented in the literature by several reports, checklists and guidelines on veterinary medicine in general, such as the Checklist for One Health Epidemiological Reporting of Evidence (COHERE) and the Animal Health Surveillance Reporting Guidelines (AHSURED). Identified items that related to laboratory animal research were excluded as non-relevant to our study.

Conclusion Clinical observational studies are an important methodological approach, having currently unrealized potential in the field of homeopathic veterinary medicine. With relatively minor adjustments, the practical guidelines and checklists available to researchers in designing, conducting and reporting observational studies in human homeopathic medicine have been adapted for homeopathic veterinary medicine, for which high quality can be assured by implementing recommendations such as those in STROBE-Vet. With the emergence of the One Health concept, the COHERE checklist can be viewed with growing significance.

Authors' Contributions

P.W., M.F., P.F., C.K.-L., and S.U.-Z. made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work. They drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content. They did the final approval of the version to be published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Publication History

Received: 22 August 2022

Accepted: 02 December 2022

Article published online:
16 March 2023

© 2023. The Faculty of Homeopathy. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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