CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2023; 13(04): 557-562
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1761213
Original Article

Protective Role of Hsp27 in the Nonylphenol-Induced Locomotory and Longevity Toxicity

Shiwangi Dwivedi
1   Nitte (Deemed to be University), Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Karnataka, India
Kean Anthony Daniel Francis
1   Nitte (Deemed to be University), Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Karnataka, India
Anurag Sharma
1   Nitte (Deemed to be University), Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Division of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding We would like to acknowledge Nitte Research Grant's financial support (NU/DR/NUFR1/NUCSER/2019–20/01). SD thankfully acknowledges the financial support by Nitte-JRF (NU16PHDBS07).


Background Gut health is directly proportional to an organism's fitness. Our recent study showed a functional link between oxidative stress and heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27, a stress protein) in the Drosophila larval gut, which coordinates the nonylphenol (an endocrine disruptor) allied sub-cellular and developmental adversities.

Objective In continuation with the prior study, the present study aimed to explore the association of Hsp27 with locomotory and survival against nonylphenol-induced toxicity in the Drosophila gut.

Methods and Methodology The freshly emerged adult flies were exposed to nonylphenol (5.0 µg/mL) for 10 to 40 days, and their locomotory performance (climbing activity) and survivability were assessed. ANOVA was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the mean values in control and treated flies.

Results Nonylphenol exposure markedly influenced locomotory activity and survivability after 30 to 40 days. For instance, ∼76% (40 days) declined locomotor behavior, and ∼35% (40 days) reduced survivability was observed. While the overexpression of Hsp27 in the organism's gut showed improvement in locomotory performance and survivability after 30 to 40 days. No significant alteration in locomotory performance and survivability was observed after 10 to 20 days of nonylphenol exposure.

Conclusion The present study illustrates that Hsp27 overexpression in the Drosophila gut improves the locomotory performance and survivability in the nonylphenol exposed Drosophila. This also indicates the possible connection between the gut and organismal fitness.

Publication History

Article published online:
16 March 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Ekdal A. Fate of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and its inhibitory impact on the biodegradation of acetate under aerobic conditions. Environ Technol 2014; 35 (5-8): 741-748
  • 2 EPA. Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria-nonylphenol
  • 3 Raju S, Sivamurugan M, Gunasagaran K, Subramani T, Natesan M. Preliminary studies on the occurrence of nonylphenol in the marine environments, Chennai—a case study. J Basic Appl Zool 2018;79(01):
  • 4 Jiang L, Yang Y, Zhang Y. et al. Accumulation and toxicological effects of nonylphenol in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) plants. Sci Rep 2019; 9 (01) 7022
  • 5 Aronzon CM, Peluso J, Coll CP. Mixture toxicity of copper and nonylphenol on the embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum . Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020; 27 (12) 13985-13994
  • 6 Shao Y, Zhao W, Wei J, Wang S, Wang Y, Zhang Y. Growth and reproduction effects and transgenerational effects of nonylphenol in Moina mongolica Daday (Crustacea: Cladocera). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021; 28 (23) 29221-29230
  • 7 Lu D, Yu L, Li M, Zhai Q, Tian F, Chen W. Behavioral disorders caused by nonylphenol and strategies for protection. Chemosphere 2021; 275: 129973
  • 8 Paolella G, Romanelli AM, Martucciello S. et al. The mechanism of cytotoxicity of 4-nonylphenol in a human hepatic cell line involves ER-stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021; 35 (07) e22780
  • 9 Ke Q, Yang J, Liu H. et al. Dose- and time-effects responses of nonylphenol on oxidative stress in rat through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021; 216: 112185
  • 10 Li T, Lu M, Xu B. et al. Multiple perspectives reveal the gut toxicity of polystyrene microplastics on Eisenia fetida: Insights into community signatures of gut bacteria and their translocation. Sci Total Environ 2022; 838 (Pt 4): 156352
  • 11 Palanisamy BN, Sarkar S, Malovic E. et al. Environmental neurotoxic pesticide exposure induces gut inflammation and enteric neuronal degeneration by impairing enteric glial mitochondrial function in pesticide models of Parkinson's disease: Potential relevance to gut-brain axis inflammation in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2022; 147: 106225
  • 12 Dwivedi S, D'Souza LC, Shetty NG, Raghu SV, Sharma A. Hsp27, a potential EcR target, protects nonylphenol-induced cellular and organismal toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Pollut 2022; 293: 118484
  • 13 Fulda S, Gorman AM, Hori O, Samali A. Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death. Int J Cell Biol 2010; 2010: 214074
  • 14 Vidyasagar A, Wilson NA, Djamali A. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27): biomarker of disease and therapeutic target. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 2012; 5 (01) 7
  • 15 Pandey A, Chandra S, Chauhan LKS, Narayan G, Chowdhuri DK. Cellular internalization and stress response of ingested amorphous silica nanoparticles in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster . Biochim Biophys Acta 2013; 1830 (01) 2256-2266
  • 16 Ziehm M, Thornton JM. Unlocking the potential of survival data for model organisms through a new database and online analysis platform: SurvCurv. Aging Cell 2013; 12 (05) 910-916
  • 17 Pandey A, Saini S, Khatoon R, Sharma D, Narayan G, Kar Chowdhuri D. Overexpression of hsp27 rescued neuronal cell death and reduction in life- and health-span in Drosophila melanogaster against prolonged exposure to Dichlorvos. Mol Neurobiol 2016; 53 (05) 3179-3193
  • 18 Festing MF. Reduction in animal use in the production and testing of biologicals. Dev Biol Stand 1999; 101: 195-200 Accessed May22021
  • 19 Zemheri-Navruz F, Bulut N, Şenses Y, Uğuz C. Effect of vitamins C and E on nonylphenol–induced DNA damage and tefu gene expression in Drosophila Melanogaster . Biol Environ 2022; 122 (02) 137-142
  • 20 Sharma A, Mishra M, Shukla AK, Kumar R, Abdin MZ, Chowdhuri DK. Organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan induced cellular and organismal response in Drosophila melanogaster . J Hazard Mater 2012; 221-222 (221) 275-287
  • 21 Camilleri M, Lyle BJ, Madsen KL, Sonnenburg J, Verbeke K, Wu GD. Role for diet in normal gut barrier function: developing guidance within the framework of food-labeling regulations. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019; 317 (01) G17-G39
  • 22 Arnal ME, Lallès JP. Gut epithelial inducible heat-shock proteins and their modulation by diet and the microbiota. Nutr Rev 2016; 74 (03) 181-197
  • 23 Sommer K, Wiendl M, Müller TM. et al. Intestinal mucosal wound healing and barrier integrity in IBD-crosstalk and trafficking of cellular players. Front Med (Lausanne) 2021; 8: 643973
  • 24 Rowland I, Gibson G, Heinken A. et al. Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components. Eur J Nutr 2018; 57 (01) 1-24
  • 25 Collins SL, Patterson AD. The gut microbiome: an orchestrator of xenobiotic metabolism. Acta Pharm Sin B 2020; 10 (01) 19-32
  • 26 Daidoji T, Ozawa M, Sakamoto H. et al. Slow elimination of nonylphenol from rat intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 2006; 34 (01) 184-190
  • 27 Kowalski K, Mulak A. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 25 (01) 48-60
  • 28 Ni Y, Hu L, Yang S. et al. Bisphenol A impairs cognitive function and 5-HT metabolism in adult male mice by modulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Chemosphere 2021; 282: 130952
  • 29 Vicente Miranda H, Chegão A, Oliveira MS, Fernandes Gomes B, Enguita FJ, Outeiro TF. Hsp27 reduces glycation-induced toxicity and aggregation of alpha-synuclein. FASEB J 2020; 34 (05) 6718-6728
  • 30 Akagi K, Wilson KA, Katewa SD. et al. Dietary restriction improves intestinal cellular fitness to enhance gut barrier function and lifespan in D. melanogaster . PLoS Genet 2018; 14 (11) e1007777
  • 31 Alexander CC, Munkáscy E, Tillmon H. et al. HspB1 overexpression improves life span and stress resistance in an invertebrate model. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022; 77 (02) 268-275