Semin Thromb Hemost
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1761217
Review Article

The History of Factor XIII Deficiency

Akbar Dorgalaleh
1   Hamin Tis Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
› Author Affiliations


Despite the early discovery of factor XIII (FXIII) in 1944, the diagnosis of FXIII deficiency was not made until 1960, after all the other coagulation factor deficiencies, most likely due to the normality of routine coagulation testing in FXIII deficiency. Although the first case was detected by the clot solubility test and this test has long since been used to detect FXIII deficiency, the test is no longer recommended by experts. Over the past 60 years, knowledge about FXIII deficiency has expanded considerably, between 1992, when the first variant was identified, and 2022, 197 mutations have been reported. Almost all missense mutations have a similar effect on FXIII, leading to instability and faster degradation of mutant FXIII protein. Therapeutic options have evolved from historical fresh frozen plasma (FFP), old plasma, whole blood, and cryoprecipitate, to plasma-derived and recombinant FXIII concentrates, respectively available since 1993 and 2012. These concentrate products were respectively approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 and 2013. This historical review covers various aspects of FXIII related disorders, including the discovery of the FXIII, associated disorders, molecular basis, diagnosis, and treatment of FXIII deficiency.

Publication History

Article published online:
27 January 2023

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