CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2023; 13(04): 459-468
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1762579
Review Article

Geospatial Analysis of Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: A Scoping Review

Mackwin Kenwood Dmello
1   Department of Public Health, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, India
Sanjeev Badiger
2   Department of Community Medicine, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Mangaluru, India
Sudeep Kumar
3   Senior State Consultant, Karnataka, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), India
Karma Galey
1   Department of Public Health, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, India
Nanjesh Kumar
4   Department of Community Medicine, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, India
Neevan Dsouza
5   Department of Biostatistics, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangaluru, India
› Author Affiliations


Nutritional status is one of the important factors that indicate children's proper development and growth. The geospatial analytic approach is useful in describing and analyzing the characteristics, depth, and coverage of the malnutrition burden among under-five children. This current scoping review was performed to systematically map the spatial analytical techniques and approaches applied in nutrition among under-five children. An organized online database search was conducted to identify articles published between 1995 and 2021 on under-five nutrition and spatial statistic in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. A total of 80 distinct articles were identified, of which 34 articles were used for the final review. A spatial statistical correlation was mainly used (n = 15), followed by Bayesian spatial modelling (n = 7), Global Moran's technique (n = 9), and Getis-Ord (n = 3). Nine studies in India concerning spatial analysis and undernutrition were conducted based on a national-level demographic health survey. There is a need for future spatial studies related to nutrition and under-five children at the sub-national level in India.

Ethical Statement

The study did not require the approval of an ethics committee as it was a review of the articles published available in the public domain.

Publication History

Article published online:
14 April 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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