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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Intoxication and Overdoses: A Systematic ReviewFunding None declared.
Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly applied over recent decades to treat severe cardiogenic shock and acute lung failure and cardiac arrest of various causes. Acute intoxication with therapeutic substances or other chemical substances can cause severe cardiogenic shock or even cardiac arrest. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative systematic review of ECMO use in intoxication and poisoning.
Methods We searched the PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science databases from January 1971 to December 2021 and selected appropriate studies according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria to evaluate the role of ECMO in intoxication and poisoning systematically. Survival at hospital discharge was examined to describe the outcome.
Results The search resulted in 365 publications after removing duplicates. In total, 190 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. A total of 145 articles from 1985 to 2021 were examined in our final qualitative analysis. A total of 539 (100%) patients were included (mean age: 30.9 ± 16.6 years), with a distribution of n = 64 (11.9%) cases with venovenous (vv) ECMO, n = 218 (40.4%) cases with venoarterial (va) ECMO, and n = 257 (47.7%) cases with cardiac arrest and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Survival at hospital discharge was 61.0% for all patients, 68.8% for vaECMO, 75% for vvECMO, and 50.9% for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Conclusion When used and reported, ECMO seems to be a valid tool for adult and pediatric patients suffering intoxication from various pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical substances due to a high survival rate at hospital discharge.
Keywordsextracorporeal membrane oxygenation - intensive care - intoxications - shock (systemic - cardiac - or circulatory)
S.M., L.R., and L.S. were responsible for the conception and design of the work; S.M., L.S., L.R., and J.S. were responsible for literature search; S.M., L.S., L.R., and J.S. were responsible for data collection; M.C., F.B., and C.B. were reposnible for data analysis and interpretation; M. C., F.B., and C.B. were responsible for statistical analysis; S.M., M.C., and C.B. were responsible for drafting the manuscript; M.C., F.B., and C.B. were responsible for critical revision the work.
Received: 12 August 2022
Accepted: 23 January 2023
Article published online:
20 March 2023
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