CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ann Natl Acad Med Sci 2023; 59(02): 090-096
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1764349
Original Article

Evaluation of Clinical, Demographic, and Biochemical Profiles of Trinidadian Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

Shivananda Nayak B
1   Department of Preclinical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Tamika Kachada Monplaisir
2   Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Geetha Bhaktha
3   Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India
4   Department Adult Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
5   Department of Biochemistry, Panimalar Medical College Hospital & Research Institute, Varadharajapuram, Poonamallee, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Vishnu Priya
6   Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding The authors would like to thank Campus Research and Publication fund, The University of the West Indies for providing the grant to conduct this study.


Background Trinidad and Tobago ranks number 45 in the world for total deaths due to coronary heart disease. Predictive tests for coronary angiographic results set the basis for earlier monitoring of the disease before additional complications become obvious.

Aims and Methods This study aimed to evaluate the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of 124 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) in Trinidad and how these parameters correlate to the findings at angiography.

Results The biochemical parameters showed statistically significant correlations with CAD severity by Spearman's rank-order correlation. Two clinical parameters showed significant associations with CAD severity—ethnicity (χ2 (4) = 12.925, p = 0.012) and presence of type 2 diabetes at baseline (χ2 (4) = 21.483, p < 0.001).

Conclusion Biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, creatinine, and hemoglobin A1c were well correlated and well associated with the severity of CAD after diagnosis by the process of coronary angiography. Hence, these factors can be taken into consideration to predict the severity of CAD.

Publication History

Article published online:
12 April 2023

© 2023. National Academy of Medical Sciences (India). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006; 3 (11) e442
  • 2 Leal J, Luengo-Fernández R, Gray A, Petersen S, Rayner M. Economic burden of cardiovascular diseases in the enlarged European Union. Eur Heart J 2006; 27 (13) 1610-1619
  • 3 World Health Day.. 2013 [Internet]. Ministry of Health- Trinidad and Tobago. 2013. Accessed April 5, 2018, at:
  • 4 Raghav L, Waghmode P, Parker MA, Pawar S. Clinical profile of patients undergoing coronary angiography with special reference to complications of coronary angiography. Int J Advance Med 2017; 4 (04) 1170-1174
  • 5 Kulick D. . Coronary Angiogram Diagnosing Heart Disease [Internet]. MedicineNet. Accessed August 9, 2018, at:
  • 6 Bayes-Genis A, de Antonio M, Galán A. et al. Combined use of high-sensitivity ST2 and NTproBNP to improve the prediction of death in heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2012; 14 (01) 32-38
  • 7 Park C, Guallar E, Linton JA. et al. Fasting glucose level and the risk of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes Care 2013; 36 (07) 1988-1993
  • 8 Laakso M. Cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes from population to man to mechanisms: the Kelly West Award Lecture 2008. Diabetes Care 2010; 33 (02) 442-449
  • 9 Piveta VM, Bittencourt CS, Oliveira CS. et al. Individuals with prediabetes identified by HbA1c undergoing coronary angiography have worse cardiometabolic profile than those identified by fasting glucose. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2014; 6 (01) 138
  • 10 Dutta B, Neginhal M, Iqbal F. Glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C) correlation with severity of coronary artery disease in non-diabetic patients - a hospital based study from North-Eastern India. J Clin Diagn Res 2016; 10 (09) OC20 –OC23
  • 11 Conlon PJ, Little MA, Pieper K, Mark DB. Severity of renal vascular disease predicts mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Kidney Int 2001; 60 (04) 1490-1497
  • 12 Almekinder E. . The Connection Between Diabetes, Heart Disease, And Stroke [Internet]. Accessed July 3, 2018, at:
  • 13 Korkmaz Ş, Demirkan B, Altay H. et al. Serum creatinine is independently associated with angiographic extent of coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina pectoris. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2011; 11 (05) 407-413
  • 14 Jose P, Skali H, Anavekar N. et al. Increase in creatinine and cardiovascular risk in patients with systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17 (10) 2886-2891
  • 15 Kragelund C, Grønning B, Omland T. et al. Is N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) a useful screening test for angiographic findings in patients with stable coronary disease?. Am Heart J 2006; 151 (03) 712.e1-712 .e7
  • 16 Yeşil M, Postaci N, Arikan E, Ceylan O, Bayata S, Köseoğlu M. Can we predict the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with stable angina using NT-ProBNP?. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2006; 6 (03) 235-238
  • 17 Goetze JP, Christoffersen C, Perko M. et al. Increased cardiac BNP expression associated with myocardial ischemia. FASEB J 2003; 17 (09) 1105-1107
  • 18 Dieplinger B, Egger M, Haltmayer M. et al. Increased soluble ST2 predicts long-term mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease: results from the Ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. Clin Chem 2014; 60 (03) 530-540
  • 19 Narasimhan S, McKay K, Bainey KR. Coronary artery disease in South Asians. Cardiol Rev 2012; 20 (06) 304-311
  • 20 Marmot MG. Alcohol and coronary heart disease. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30 (04) 724-729
  • 21 Abbasi SH, Sundin Ö, Jalali A, Soares J, Macassa G. Ethnic differences in the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease: a patient-based study in Iran. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2018; 5 (03) 623-631
  • 22 Jousilahti P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J, Puska P. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation 1999; 99 (09) 1165-1172
  • 23 Hertzer NR, Beven EG, Young JR. et al. Coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients. A classification of 1000 coronary angiograms and results of surgical management. Ann Surg 1984; 199 (02) 223-233
  • 24 Maas AH, Appelman YE. Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Neth Heart J 2010; 18 (12) 598-602
  • 25 Weidner G. Why do men get more heart disease than women? An international perspective. J Am Coll Health 2000; 48 (06) 291-294