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Investigation of the effects of Bipolar Radiofrequency Energy on the Structural Morphology of Dental PlaqueFunding None.
Objectives To investigate the effects of radiofrequency (RF) energy, applied through a power toothbrush, on the structural morphology of dental plaque and its bacteria components. Previous studies showed that a toothbrush powered by RF (ToothWave) effectively reduces extrinsic tooth stains, plaque, and calculus. However, the mechanism by which it reduces dental plaque deposits is not fully established.
Materials and Methods Multispecies plaques at sampling time points of 24, 48, and 72 hours were treated with the application of RF using ToothWave with the toothbrush bristles 1 mm above the plaque surface. Groups that underwent the same protocol but without RF treatment served as paired controls. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used to determine cell viability at each time point. Plaque morphology and bacteria ultrastructure were viewed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively.
Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-tests.
Results At each time, RF treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the viable cells in plaque and caused a substantial disruption of plaque morphology, while the untreated plaque had intact morphology. Cells in treated plaques showed disrupted cell walls, cytoplasmic material, huge vacuoles, and heterogeneity in electron density, while these organelles remained intact in untreated plaques.
Conclusion The application of RF via a power toothbrush can disrupt plaque morphology and kill bacteria. These effects were enhanced by the combined application of RF and toothpaste.
Keywordsdental plaque - power toothbrush - radiofrequency - toothbrushing - ToothWave - bacterial viability
Data Available Statement
The dataset generated and analyzed during the current study are available upon request from Dr. Bennett T. Amaechi (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Investigate the effects of bipolar radiofrequency (3 W, 3 MHz) applied via a power toothbrush on the structural morphology (chain formation) of periodontal disease-causing biofilm, ultrastructure (cell wall and cell components) of the bacteria, and the thickness of bacteria plaque biofilm.
Article published online:
12 May 2023
© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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