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Cholera: An Overview with Reference to the Syrian OutbreakFunding None.
Cholera is an acute type of diarrheal disease caused by intestinal infection with the toxin-producing bacteria Vibrio cholerae. The disease is still endemic in almost 69 countries, accounting for around 2.86 million cases and 95,000 deaths annually. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure, and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera outbreak in Syria is associated with more than 10 years of conflict, which has devastated infrastructures and health services. There were 132,782 suspected cases reported between August 25, 2022 and May 20, 2023 in all 14 governorates, including 104 associated deaths. The recent earthquake in the region has complicated the situation, with an increase in cholera cases, and hindrance to a response to the disease. Climate change has driven a number of large cholera outbreaks around the world this year. The World Health Organization prequalifies three oral cholera vaccines. Cholera treatment mainly depends on rehydration, with the use of antibiotics in more severe infections. This review gives an overview of cholera bacteriology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention in light of global climate change and the ongoing outbreak in Syria, which poses a significant public health threat that requires urgent attention.
Article published online:
27 September 2023
© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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