CC BY 4.0 · Libyan International Medical University Journal 2024; 09(01): 021-027
DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-1779340
Original Article

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia, Drug Therapy Problems, and Medication Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in North Central Nigeria

1   Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Timothy Orimogunje
1   Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
S.I. Bello
1   Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Muslim Olakunle Jamiu
1   Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Ikoni J. Ogaji
3   Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Background Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia, predisposing them to macro- and microvascular consequences such as coronary heart disease.

Aim The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia, drug therapy problems (DTPs), and medication adherence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria.

Method This study was a cross-sectional convenient sampling of eligible patients conducted in the General Outpatient Department of General Hospital, Ilorin, from March to May 2022. A validated questionnaire was administered to obtain all relevant information on sociodemographic information, and blood samples were collected in a medium plain heparinized tube and sent to the laboratory where fasting blood sugar, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were calculated as appropriate. Morisky's Medication Adherence Scale 8 (MMAS-8) was used to capture patient's adherence level, and DTP was assessed using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) Criteria version 7. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Ilorin. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data collected for descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results The mean age of the respondents was 60 ± 0.7 years. Of the 60 respondents, 25 (41.67%) were males and 35 (58.33%) were females. All the respondents had dyslipidemia, 30% respondents were identified with a DTP of nonadherence, 16.7% needed additional drug/monitoring, dosage was too low in 11.7%, and 11.6% could not afford their medication due to high cost. In all, 45 (75%) respondents had poor sugar control and 33 (55%) had poor blood pressure control. Using MMAS-8, the majority (41, [68.30%]) of the respondents were found to have poor adherence to their diabetic medications.

Conclusion High prevalence of dyslipidemia, poor medication adherence, and DTPs were found in the T2DM patients in this study.

Publication History

Article published online:
16 February 2024

© 2024. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Chahil TJ, Ginsberg HN. Diabetic dyslipidemia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2006; 35 (03) 491-510 , vii–viii
  • 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet. 2011 Accessed November 20, 2022 at:
  • 3 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143-3421
  • 4 Betteridge DJ. Diabetic dyslipidaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab 2000; 2 (Suppl. 01) S31-S36
  • 5 Naheed T, Khan A, Masood G, Yunus BB, Chaudry MA. Dyslipidemias in type II diabetes mellitus patients in a teaching hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. Pak J Med 2003; 19 (04) 283-286
  • 6 Garg A, Grundy SM. Management of dyslipidemia in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1990; 13 (02) 153-169
  • 7 O'Brien T, Nguyen TT, Zimmerman BR. Hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73 (10) 969-976
  • 8 Ginsberg HN. Identification and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 1999; 1 (03) 233-237
  • 9 Grundy SM. Hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83 (9B): 25F-29F
  • 10 Jisieike-Onuigbo NN, Unuigbe EI, Oguejiofor CO. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South-East Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2011; 10 (04) 285-289
  • 11 Pladevall M, Williams LK, Potts LA, Divine G, Xi H, Lafata JE. Clinical outcomes and adherence to medications measured by claims data in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (12) 2800-2805
  • 12 Krapek K, King K, Warren SS. et al. Medication adherence and associated hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38 (09) 1357-1362
  • 13 Horne R, Weinman J. Predicting treatment adherence: an overview of theoretical models. In: Myers L, Midence K. eds. Adherence Treatment in Medical Conditions. London: CRC Press; 2020: 26-31
  • 14 Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe. PCNE Classification for Drug-Related Problems V8.01. 2017. Accessed November 20, 2022 at: http://wwwpcneorg/working-groups/2/drug-related-problem-classification:1-3
  • 15 Cipolle RJ, Strand LM, Morley PC. Pharmaceutical Care Practice: The Patient-Centered Approach to Medication Management. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2012
  • 16 Zaman Huri H, Fun Wee H. Drug related problems in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension: a cross-sectional retrospective study. BMC Endocr Disord 2013; 13 (01) 2
  • 17 Basit A, Sabir S, Riaz M, Fawwad A. NDSP members. NDSP 05: Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in urban and rural areas of Pakistan; a sub analysis from second National Diabetes Survey of Pakistan (NDSP) 2016-2017. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020; 19 (02) 1215-1225
  • 18 Morisky DE, Ang A, Krousel-Wood M, Ward HJ. Predictive validity of a medication adherence measure in an outpatient setting. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2008; 10 (05) 348-354
  • 19 Berlowitz DR, Foy CG, Kazis LE. et al; SPRINT Study Research Group. Effect of intensive blood-pressure treatment on patient-reported outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377 (08) 733-744
  • 20 Bress AP, Bellows BK, King JB. et al; SPRINT Research Group. Cost-effectiveness of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 2017; 377 (08) 745-755
  • 21 Jahangiry L, Farhangi MA, Rezaei F. Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Health Popul Nutr 2017; 36 (01) 36
  • 22 de Souza LJ, Souto Filho JT, de Souza TF. et al. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk factors in Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Arq Bras Cardiol 2003; 81 (03) 249-264
  • 23 Vezi ZB, Naidoo DP. Dyslipidaemia among black patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc J S Afr 2005; 16 (04) 194-198
  • 24 Steinbrecher UP, Witztum JL. Glucosylation of low-density lipoproteins to an extent comparable to that seen in diabetes slows their catabolism. Diabetes 1984; 33 (02) 130-134
  • 25 Al-Nuaim AR, Famuyiwa O, Greer W. Hyperlipidemia among Saudi diabetic patients: pattern and clinical characteristics. Ann Saudi Med 1995; 15 (03) 240-243
  • 26 Odenigbo CU, Oguejiofor OC, Odenigbo UM, Ibeh CC, Ajaero CN, Odike MA. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia in apparently healthy professionals in Asaba, South South Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2008; 11 (04) 330-335
  • 27 Adeloye D, Abaa DQ, Owolabi EO. et al. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health 2020; 178: 167-178
  • 28 Zaman Huri H, Chai Ling L. Drug-related problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with dyslipidemia. BMC Public Health 2013; 13 (01) 1192
  • 29 Jemal A, Abdela J, Sisay M. Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications among type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients in Chronic Ambulatory Wards of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. J Diabetes Metab 2017; 8 (01) 8-40
  • 30 Wabe NT, Angamo MT, Hussein S. Medication adherence in diabetes mellitus and self management practices among type-2 diabetics in Ethiopia. N Am J Med Sci 2011; 3 (09) 418-423