Endoscopic Forehead Lifting and Contouring
31 December 2001 (online)
The concept of endoscopic foreheadplasty is based upon a sub- or supraperiosteal dissection of the parietal, occipital and frontal scalp, incision and release of the superior and lateral orbital periosteum, selective myotomies of the brow depressor muscles, and brow elevation into a desired position with fixation and healing. A significant limitation of this procedure appears to be the ability to predict the long-term forehead and brow elevation.
We review the anatomy relevant to forehead rejuvenation surgery and present our surgical technique for permanent fixation endoscopic forehead lifting. We discuss the scientific rationale for permanent fixation to ensure long-term forehead and brow position and draw our conclusions based upon the results of animal and clinical studies that have been completed.
Endoscopic browlift - forehead lift - facial rejuvenation