Facial plast Surg 2001; 17(1): 011-020
DOI: 10.1055/s-2001-16362
Copyright © 2001 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.: +1(212) 584-4662

Botulinum A Exotoxin for Rejuvenation of the Upper Third of the Face

John A. Carucci1 , Stuart M. Zweibel2
  • 1Mohs' Micrographic and Dermatologic Surgery, Department of Dermatology, NY Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York
  • 2Ronald O. Perleman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
31 December 2001 (online)

ABSTRACT

Botulinum A exotoxin, derived from the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium botulinum, has proven to be safe and effective in the temporary treatment of facial rhytides. In order to obtain reproducible results and avoid complications, it is necessary to understand the relevant physiology and anatomic relationships. Technical considerations including injection technique, dilution, storage, and potential complications will be discussed.