Botulinum A Exotoxin for Rejuvenation of the Upper Third of the Face
31 December 2001 (online)
Botulinum A exotoxin, derived from the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium botulinum, has proven to be safe and effective in the temporary treatment of facial rhytides. In order to obtain reproducible results and avoid complications, it is necessary to understand the relevant physiology and anatomic relationships. Technical considerations including injection technique, dilution, storage, and potential complications will be discussed.
Anatomy - botox - botulinum toxin - rhytides