Facial plast Surg 2002; 18(2): 101-112
DOI: 10.1055/s-2002-32200
Copyright © 2002 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.: +1(212) 584-4662

Outcomes with Eye Reanimation Microsurgery

Julia K. Terzis, William Bruno
  • Department of Surgery, Division Plastic Surgery, International Institute of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Microsurgical Research Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Lewis Hall, Rm 2055, Norfolk, VA
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Publication History

Publication Date:
13 June 2002 (online)


This study reviews the various microsurgical techniques available to reanimate the paralyzed eye sphincter. Traditional as well as several innovative procedures are described that the senior author has used over the past 20 years. The methods of evaluating such outcomes are discussed and analyzed with regard to eye reanimation. An independent panel of reviewers evaluated standardized preoperative and postoperative videos documenting eye closure and blink in patients with lagophthalmos. A significant difference in overall postoperative outcome of both eye closure and blink was demonstrated. In this particular population, those patients who underwent dynamic procedures more often yielded better results than those who did not. Detailed video documentation and independent grading of outcomes of eye closure and blink are necessary to assist in developing effective surgical treatments for paralytic lagophthalmos. Accurate measurement of the results of these interventions remains a considerable challenge in the field of eye reanimation microsurgery.