Facial plast Surg 2006; 22(2): 91-96
DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-947714
Copyright © 2006 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Rejuvenation of the Aging Upper Third of the Face

Paul Presti1 , Haresh Yalamanchili1 , Carlo P. Honrado2
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 July 2006 (online)

ABSTRACT

Age-related changes to the upper third of the face manifest, typically, as brow ptosis and the development of deep skin furrows. Depression of the brow evolves as gravity and the action of the corrugator supercilli, procerus, and orbicularis draw on the progressively inelastic forehead skin. Facial mimetic muscle action reveals itself over time via the development of deep forehead rhytids. Facial plastic surgeons have at their disposal several effective surgical, and recently, medical interventions to address these changes. Each technique has merits and suitable applications. This review examines the history of rejuvenation of the upper face, details the pertinent treatment modalities, and evaluates the context in which each is applicable.