Horm Metab Res 1988; 20: 411-420
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1010850
© Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart · New York

Insulin-Related Materials in the Nervous System of Vertebrates and Non-Vertebrates: Possible Extrapancreatic Production

D. LeRoith, M. Adamo, J. Shemer, R. Waldbillig, Maxine A. Lesniak, Flora dePablo, C. Hart, J. Roth
  • Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.
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Publication History

Publication Date:
14 March 2008 (online)


Studies from multiple laboratories with a range of methods raised the possibility that insulin production occurs naturally at extrapancreatic sites. Part A covers the presence of insulin-related materials in organisms that do not have an endocrine pancreas, including unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes as well as multicellular non-vertebrate animals (insects et al.) and plants. Part B covers possible production of insulin by extrapancreatic tissues of vertebrates that are remote from a source of pancreatic insulin e.g. early chick embryos and mammalian cells in culture. Part C covers possible extra-pancreatic insulin production in mammals in vivo. Each section ends with an outline summary with evidence in favor of and against the hypothesis.