Int J Sports Med 2008; 29(4): 336-342
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-965340

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Meal Frequency of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feedings

C. Chryssanthopoulos1 , A. Petridou2 , M. Maridaki1 , V. Mougios2
  • 1Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 2Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision February 24, 2007

Publication Date:
13 September 2007 (online)


This study compared the effect of single and multiple carbohydrate feedings before exercise on biochemical and physiological responses during exercise. Eight males performed 3 runs for 1 h at 70 % V·O2max after consuming a meal containing 2.5 g carbohydrate per kg body mass in a single dose 3 h before exercise (SF), the same meal in 5 equal doses at 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, and 1 h before exercise (MF), or a liquid placebo 3 h before exercise (P). RER and carbohydrate oxidation rates were higher in SF and MF compared to P trials, but there was no difference between SF and MF trials. Pre-exercise insulin was 2.0- and 3.4- fold higher in SF and MF, respectively, compared to P, and 1.7-fold higher in MF compared to SF. Glycerol and NEFA were higher in P compared to SF and MF trials before and at the end of exercise. In conclusion, a carbohydrate meal containing 2.5 g · kg-1 ingested in doses over 3 h before running produced higher hyperinsulinemia pre-exercise than that produced when the meal was consumed in a single dose. Nevertheless, estimated carbohydrate utilization and adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise after multiple feedings seemed to be as high as after a single feeding.


Dr. Costas Chryssanthopoulos

Physical Education and Sports Science
University of Athens

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