Facial plast Surg 2007; 23(1): 027-042
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-970130
Copyright © 2007 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Evolution in Techniques for Endsocopic Brow Lift with Deep Temporal Fixation Only and Lower Blepharoplasty-Transconjunctival Fat Repositioning

Paul S. Nassif1 , 2 , 3
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles<
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles
  • 3Spalding Drive Cosmetic Surgery and Dermatology, Beverley Hills, California
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
02 March 2007 (online)


As we become more confident with our surgical skills following our fellowship training, some of our approaches and techniques will be modified or changed. My primary evolutionary change involves procedures of the upper third of the face, primarily the brow lift and treatment of lower eyelid fat techniques. Traditional methods of forehead and brow rejuvenation, such as coronal, pretrichal, and direct brow lifts, have provided facial plastic surgeons with effective brow elevation for many years. In the past decade, the endoscopic brow lift has rapidly become accepted as part of the surgical armamentarium and is frequently the technique of choice. In general, the temporal dissection, temporal fixation, forehead subperiosteal or subgaleal dissection with release, and treatment to the brow depressor musculature have been standardized. Methods of bony fixation remain a controversial topic as there are numerous methods. We advocate deep temporal fixation only without bone fixation to achieve effective, long-term brow elevation. Traditionally, lower eyelid herniated fat is removed, which may cause a sunken or hollow lid appearance, especially in patients with a tear trough deformity (nasojugal groove). Lower eyelid transconjunctival fat repositioning, defined as the subperiosteal repositioning of the medial and central lower eyelid herniated orbital fat into the nasojugal fold, may prevent the surgical, hollow lower eyelid appearance while treating the herniated fat. Fat repositioning may be combined with an endoscopic subperiosteal midface-lift, transcutaneous skin pinch, and transconjunctival orbicularis oculi excision. This technique offers a powerful tool in the surgical armamentarium of the facial plastic surgeon.