Facial plast Surg 2008; 24(1): 135-145
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1037455
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Advances in Cranioplasty: A Simplified Algorithm to Guide Cranial Reconstruction of Acquired Defects

Monica Tadros1 , 2 , Peter D. Costantino1 , 2 , 3
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York
  • 2The Center for Facial Reconstruction & Restoration, New York, New York
  • 3The Center for Cranial Base Surgery, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, New York, New York
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
20 February 2008 (online)


The search for a universal reconstructive material and the application of a routine approach leaves the surgeon limited in cranial reconstruction. Facility with a variety of implant materials and approaches helps optimize surgical management. The variability of surgical defects and challenges in cranial reconstruction highlights the importance of a strategic approach to evaluate both the defect and the clinical circumstance. Among the numerous alloplastic materials available, the utility of titanium mesh, hydroxyapatite cement, and prefabricated custom acrylic implants have remained at the forefront. The onus of responsibility remains on the surgeon to evaluate each clinical scenario and select the optimal course for management.