Facial plast Surg 1999; 15(1): 3-12
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1064296
© 1999 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Skeletal Implants in Aesthetic Facial Surgery

Artemus J. Cox1  III , Tom D. Wang2
  • 1Assistant Professor, Division of Otolaryngology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama
  • 2Associate Professor, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
02 June 2008 (online)


The features of the nose, mentum, and malar complex define a person's profile and give the essence of character to the visage. Whether profile deficiencies are due to congenital, traumatic, or aging factors, facial plastic surgeons are able to meet patients' and their own exacting demands more thoroughly with skeletal implants. Although the search for the perfect implant continues, today's armamentarium of implant materials is vast and, with appropriate selection and attention to technique, facial skeletal implants can be successful in creating change impossible to obtain with soft tissue techniques alone. This article reviews both the biomaterials used in mandibular and malar complex implants and the techniques.