Thromb Haemost 2010; 104(05): 867-874
DOI: 10.1160/TH10-01-0058
Theme Issue Article
Schattauer GmbH

Studies on Fletcher trait and Fitzgerald trait

A rare chance to disclose body’s defense reactions against injury
Hidehiko Saito
1  Nagoya Central Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 22 January 2010

Accepted after minor revision: 06 April 2010

Publication Date:
24 November 2017 (online)


The way by which contact of blood with foreign surface accelerates clotting has been elucidated from the discovery of four rare disorders of blood coagulation; Hageman trait, plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA) deficiency, Fletcher trait, and Fitzgerald trait. Interestingly, it was unexpectedly found that Fletcher factor is plasma prekallikrein and Fitzgerald factor is high-molecular-weight kininogen; components of the kinin-generating system, thus disclosing intimate relationships among clotting, fibrinolysis and kinin generation which may be viewed as body’s defense reactions against injury. This review mainly reflects our research on Fletcher trait and Fitzgerald trait during the 1970s in Cleveland.