Thromb Haemost 2014; 112(03): 614-620
DOI: 10.1160/TH13-12-1024
New Technologies, Diagnostic Tools and Drugs
Schattauer GmbH

Effects of impaired renal function on levels and performance of D-dimer in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

Helia Robert-Ebadi
1   Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
,
Laurent Bertoletti
2   Thrombosis Research Group, University Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, France
,
Christophe Combescure
3   Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Health and Community Medicine, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
,
Grégoire Le Gal
4   Thrombosis Program, Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
,
Henri Bounameaux
1   Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
,
Marc Righini
1   Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 17 December 2013

Accepted after major revision: 14 April 2014

Publication Date:
02 December 2017 (online)

Summary

Clinical probability and D-dimer measurement play an essential role in the non-invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE). PE can be ruled out without further imaging in patients with non-high clinical probability and negative D-dimer. D-dimer level is increased in patients with renal impairment. Whether its diagnostic usefulness is maintained in these patients is not well determined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of renal impairment on diagnostic performances of D-dimer in patients with suspected PE. A retrospective analysis of 1,625 patients with suspected PE included in a multicentre prospective study was performed. D-dimer levels and percentages of patients with a negative D-dimer were compared between three subgroups according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by the MDRD formula: ≥90 ml/min (normal renal function), 60–89 ml/min (mild renal impairment), 30–59 ml/min (moderate renal impairment). D-dimer levels increased and the proportion of negative D-dimer decreased significantly according to renal status: 46% negative D-dimer in patients with normal GFR, 31% in patients with mild renal impairment, 11% in those with moderate renal impairment, corresponding to number of patients needed to test to obtain one negative test of 2.2, 3.2 and 9, respectively. In conclusion, the clinical usefulness of D-dimer decreases with renal impairment. However, PE can still be ruled out by negative D-dimer in a substantial proportion of patients with non-high clinical probability, avoiding exposure to contrast media.