Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2011; 24(03): 192-196
DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-10-03-0030
Original Research
Schattauer GmbH

An investigation into risk factors for bilateral canine cruciate ligament rupture

J. Grierson
1   Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK
L. Asher
2   Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK
3   Current Address: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, College Close, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough
K. Grainger
4   Pool House Veterinary Group, Fosseway Lane, Lichfield, Staffordshire, UK
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received:01 March 2010

Accepted:07 February 2010

Publication Date:
19 December 2017 (online)


Objectives: To investigate the incidence of bilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and determine any associated risk factors.

Methods: The patient information system and surgical database at the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College, were searched from March 1998 to March 2007. Patient files were reviewed and data recorded. The risk factors considered included: gender, neuter status, breed, body mass, age and concurrent orthopaedic disease.

Results: In total, 511 dogs were identified as having cruciate rupture and included for analysis. Bilateral rupture of the CrCl was present in 38.7% (198/511) of the dogs. The mean (±SD) time that passed until the contra-lateral CrCL ruptured was 57.9 weeks (±54.1 range 3 to 260 weeks). Dogs with bilateral cruciate rupture were younger (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 2.7 years) than dogs with unilateral cruciate rupture (mean ± SD 5.3 ± 2.8 years). In dogs with CrCL rupture, male dogs were more likely to have bilateral rupture than female dogs, overweight dogs were more likely to have bilateral rupture, Golden Retrievers were less likely to have bilateral rupture, and Rottweilers had the highest odds of bilateral rupture.

Clinical significance: In dogs with CrCL rupture, this study suggests possible relationships towards the incidence of a bilateral rupture also occurring as more likely in male dogs, young dogs with a mean age of four years (4.3 ± 2.7 years), Rottweiler dogs, and with an average elapsed time between ruptures of 57.9 weeks.

  • References

  • 1 Anderson J. Chapter 16: The Stifle. In Houlton JEF, Collinson R. Manual of Small Animal Arthrology. Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1994: pgs. 267-270.
  • 2 Vasseur P. Stifle Joint. In Slatter DH. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 2002: pg. 2090-2133.
  • 3 Powers MY, Martinez SA, Lincoln JD. et al. Prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a population of dogs with lameness previously attributed to hip dysplasia: 369 cases (1994–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227: 1109-1111.
  • 4 Piermattei D, Flo G, DeCamp C. Chapter 18: The Stifle Joint. In: Brinker, Piermattei and Flo’s Handbook of Small Animal Orthopedics and Fracture Repair. 4th Ed. St. Louis (Missouri, USA): Saunders Elsevier; 2006: pg. 582-605.
  • 5 Innes J, Bacon D, Lynch C. et al. Long-term outcome of surgery for dogs with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Vet Rec 2000; 147: 325-328.
  • 6 Pond M, Campbell J. The canine stifle joint I. Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. An assessment of conservative and surgical treatment. J Small Anim Pract 1972; 13: 1-10.
  • 7 Arnoczky S, Marshall J. The cruciate ligaments of the canine stifle: an anatomical and functional analysis. Am J Vet Res 1977; 38: 1807-1814.
  • 8 Moore K, Read R. Cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the dog—a retrospective study comparing surgical techniques. Aust Vet J 1995; 72: 281-285.
  • 9 Rudy R. The stifle joint. In Archibald J, Catcott E, Alexander J. Canine Surgery. 2nd Ed. Santa Barbara, California: American Veterinary Publications; 1974: pg. 1104-1159.
  • 10 Whitehair J, Vasseur P, Willits N. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993; 203: 1016-1019.
  • 11 Johnson J, Johnson A. Cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Vet Clin North Am 1993; 23: 717-733.
  • 12 De Rooster H, De Bruin T, Van Bree H. Morphological and functional features of the canine cruciate ligaments. Vet Surg 2006; 35: 769-780.
  • 13 Bennett D, Tennant B, Lewis D. et al. A reappraisal of anterior cruciate ligament disease in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1988; 29: 275-297.
  • 14 Duval J, Budsberg S, Flo G. et al. Breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 215: 811-814.
  • 15 Schulz K. Diseases of the Joints. In Fossum TW. Small Animal Surgery. 3rd Ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier; 2007: 1254-1260.
  • 16 Newton C, Lipowitz A., Canine RA. A brief review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1975; 11: 595-599.
  • 17 Newton C, Lipowitz A, Halliwell A. et al. Rheumatoid arthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1976; 168: 113-121.
  • 18 Pedersen N, Pool R, Castles J. et al. Non-infectious canine arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1976; 169: 295-303.
  • 19 Goldberg V, Burstein A, Dawson M. The influence of an experimental immune synovitis on the failure mode and strength of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1982; 64: 900-906.
  • 20 Doverspike M, Vasseur P, Harb M. et al. Contralateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture: incidence in 114 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1993; 29: 167-170.
  • 21 Singleton W. The surgical correction of stifle deformities in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1969; 10: 59-69.
  • 22 Harasen G. A retrospective study of 165 cases of rupture of the canine cruciate ligament. Can Vet J 1995; 36: 250-251.
  • 23 Cabrera S, Owen T, Mueller M. et al. Comparison of tibial plateau angles in dogs with unilateral versus bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture: 150 cases (2000–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 889-892.
  • 24 De Bruin T, De Rooster H, Bosmans T. et al. Radio-graphic assessment of the progression of osteoarthrosis in the contralateral stifle joint of dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Vet Rec 2007; 161: 745-750.
  • 25 Lampman T, Lund E, Lipowitz A. Cranial cruciate disease: current status of diagnosis, surgery, and risk for disease. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2003; 16: 122-126.
  • 26 Buote N, Fusco J, Radasch R. Age, tibial plateau angle, sex, and weight as risk factors for contralateral rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in Labradors. Vet Surg 2009; 38: 481-489.
  • 27 Wingfield C, Amis A, Stead A. et al. Comparison of the biomechanical properties of rottweiler and racing greyhound cranial cruciate ligaments. J Small Anim Pract 2000; 41: 303-307.
  • 28 Witsberger T, Villamil J, Schultz L. et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 1818-1824.