CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2013; 5(01): 21-25
DOI: 10.4103/0974-2727.115918
Original Article

Detection of Different β-Lactamases and their Co-existence by Using Various Discs Combination Methods in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp.

Vinita Rawat
Departments of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
Monil Singhai
Departments of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
Pankaj Kumar Verma
Departments of Microbiology, and Surgery, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
› Author Affiliations
Source of Support: Nil


Background: Resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, and metallobetalactamase (MBLs) enzymes are an increasing problem worldwide. The study was aimed to detect occurrence rate and to evaluate different substrates and inhibitors by disc combination method for detecting varying degree of β-lactamase enzymes and their co-production.

Materials and Methods: A disc panel containing imipenem (IMP), IMP/EDTA, ceftazidime (CA), ceftazidime-tazobactum (CAT), CAT/cloxacillin (CLOX), ceftazidime-clavulanic acid (CAC), CAC/CLOX, cefoxitin (CN), and CN/CLOX in a single plate was used to detect presence of ESBLs, AmpC, and MBLs and/or their co-existence in 184 consecutive, nonrepetitive, clinical isolates of Enterobacteriace (n = 96) and Pseudomonas spp. (n = 88) from pus samples of hospitalized patients, resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins.

Results: Out of a total of 96 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 18.7, 20.8, and 27% were pure ESBL, AmpC, and MBL producers, respectively. ESBL and AmpC were co-produced by 25% isolates. Among 88 Pseudomonas spp. 38.6, 13, and 6% were pure MBL, ESBL, and AmpC producers, respectively. ESBL/AmpC and MBL/AmpC co-production was seen in 20% and 18% isolates, respectively. Among ESBL and AmpC co-producers, CA/CAC/CLOX disc combination (DC) missed 7 of the 24 ESBL producers in Enterobacteriace and 4 of the 18 ESBL in Pseudomonas spp., which were detected by CA/CAT/CLOX DC. No mechanism was detected among 8.3% Enterobacteriaceae and 2.3% Pseudomonas isolates.

Conclusion: Diagnostic problems posed by co-existence of different classes of β-lactamases in a single isolate could be solved by disc combination method by using simple panel of discs containing CA, CAT, CAT/CLOX, IMP, and IMP/EDTA.

Publication History

Article published online:
07 April 2020

© 2013.

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