CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2016; 10(02): 292-300
DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.178294
Review Article
Dental Investigation Society

Halitosis: Current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management

Uditi Kapoor
1   General Dentist, Ontario, Canada
Gaurav Sharma
2   Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad, Haryana, India
Manish Juneja
3   Advanced Standing DMD Candidate, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, MA, USA
Archna Nagpal
4   Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, P.D.M. Dental College and Research Institute, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
23 September 2019 (online)


Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral cavity, leading to anxiety and psychosocial embarrassment. A patient with halitosis is most likely to contact primary care practitioner for the diagnosis and management. With proper diagnosis, identification of the etiology and timely referrals certain steps are taken to create a successful individualized therapeutic approach for each patient seeking assistance. It is significant to highlight the necessity of an interdisciplinary method for the treatment of halitosis to prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary treatment. The literature on halitosis, especially with randomized clinical trials, is scarce and additional studies are required. This article succinctly focuses on the development of a systematic flow of events to come to the best management of the halitosis from the primary care practitioner's point of view.